History: February 1

February 1

1327 Edward III is coronated King of England.

1328 Death: Charles IV of France, called the Handsome, the last monarch, 1322-28, in the direct line of the Capetian dynasty, .

1502 Death: Olivier de la Marche, Flemish writer, poet, governor.

1539 Emperor Karel and King François I sign an anti-English treaty.

1552 Birth: Sir Edward Coke, English jurist who will help the development of English law with his arguments for the supremacy of common law over royal perogative.

1587 Elizabeth I, Queen of England, signs the Warrant of Execution for her sister, Mary Queen of Scots. Note: When the Catholic Mary, also known as Bloody Mary due to many executions under her reign, was Queen she had pardoned her Protestant sister. The favor is not returned.

1633 The tobacco laws of Virginia are codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy.

1650 I'm Dead, Therefore I Am Not: Rene Descartes, philosopher, French mathematician, sometimes called the father of modern philosophy, one of the first proponents of the scientific method. He is considered the cofounder of analytical geometry, along with Fermat, thus preparing the way for the invention of the calculus; one of the appendices of his book Discourse de la méthode is entitled La géométrie and contains his contribution to the subject. In the appendix he showed how to use algebra to solve problems in geometry and how to use algebra and geometry together working in partnership. Ironically, he did not introduce Cartesian coordinates; this was done by Fermat. Notationally he introduced the use of exponents and the terms `real' and `imaginary'.

1659 Birth: Jacob Roggeveen, Dutch Swiss lawyer, navigator; Easter Island.

1662 The Dutch garrison on Formosa surrenders to Chinese pirates.

1666 Death: Sjihab al-Din Sultan C. Shah Djahan, mogol of India who built Taj-Mahal.

1669 French King Louis XIV limits freedom of religion.

1732 The Parliament of Ratisborn accepts 'Pragmatic Sanctions'.

1733 Death: August II the Strong, King of Poland who fathered 355 children, at 62.

1747 Death: Jacobus E.J. Capitein, Dutch slave, vicar, merchant.

1788 Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet recieve a Georgia patent for a steamboat; the first US steamboat patent issued.

1789 Chinese troops are driven out of the Vietnam capital Thang Long.

1790 The US Supreme Court meets for the first time, the year after it was established under the Judiciary Act.

1793 Revolutionary France, having executed King Louis XVI, declares war on England and Holland.

1801 Birth: Thomas Cole, US romantic landscape painter of the Hudson River School.

1805 Birth: Auguste Blanqui, in France, revolutionary workers' leader.

1809 Dutch King Louis Napoleon accepts the metric system.

1810 The US Population is put at 7,239,881, with a Black population of 1,377,808 (19%).

1839 Death: Giuseppe Valadier, Italian architect, archaeologist, at 76.

1844 Birth: Eduard Adolf Strasburger, German botanist; Angiospermen.

1851 Death: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, novelist; Frankenstein.

1860 Morris Raphall of New York, NY, becomes the first rabbi to open the House of Representatives.

1861 US Civil War: A furious Governor Sam Houston storms out of a legislative session upon learning that Texas has voted 167-7 to secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America; the 7th to do so.

1862 US Civil War: The Battle Hymn of the Republic, written by Julia Ward Howe, is published for the first time in the Atlantic Monthly.

1864 The second German-Danish war begins as Austrian and Prussian troops occupy Sleeswijk/Holstein.

1864 US Civil War: The Battle of Yazoo River, Mississippi begins. (See Feb 8).

1865 US Civil War: General Sherman's march through South Carolina begins.

1865 US Civil War: The 13th amendment, a bill to abolish slavery in the US, is signed.

1869 Death: Frederik W. Conrad, hydraulic engineer, railway pioneer, at 68.

1878 Death: George Cruikshank, English illustrator, at 85.

1883 Death: Pavel Melnikov, Russian historian, author.

1883 French Lieutenant-Colonel Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes reaches Bamako on the Niger.

1887 Birth: Dirk Roosenburg, Dutch architect.

1889 Birth: Gertrude Caton-Thompson, British archaeologist; Zimbabwe, Southern Arabia.

1893 Thomas A. Edison completes construction of the world's first motion picture studio at the Edison Laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey. The studio is given the nickname 'The Black Maria' because of its resemblance to a gigantic paddy wagon which bore the same nickname at the time. The whole studio rests on a platform which revolves to follow the sun, increasing the number of filming hours per day.

1898 The Travelers Insurance Company of Hartford, Connecticut issues the very first automobile insurance policy. Dr. Truman Martin of Buffalo, New York, pays $11.25 for the policy, which gives him $5,000 in liability coverage.

1900 Birth: Stephen Potter, humorist, writer; School for Scoundrels, Shipbuilders.

1902 The binding of women's feet is banned by Chinese Empress Tzu-hsi.

1902 US Secretary of State John Hay protests Russian privileges in China as a violation of the 'open door policy'

1903 Death: George G. Stokes, British physicist, president of the Royal Society, at 83.

1904 Death: Peter P.M. Alberdingk Thijm, Dutch historian, writer, at 76.

1904 Birth: S.J. Perelman (Sidney Joseph), in Brooklyn, New York, humorist, author;  Around the World in 80 Days.

1905 Germany contests French rule in Morocco.

1905 Death: Oswald Aschenbach, German painter, at 77.

1906 The first federal penitentiary building is completed, in Leavenworth, Kansas.

1908 Death: King Carlos I of Portugal (1889-1908), assassinated, together with his son, Luis Phillip, Crown Prince of Portugal, in Lisbon by a mob.

1909 US troops leave Cuba after installing Jose Miguel Gomez as president.

1910 Death: Otto Julius Bierbaum, German writer; Irrgarten Der Liebe.

1914 The Pennsylvania State Board of Censors starts work; the first motion picture censorship board.

1914 The Tanganyika Railway opens.

1915 Passport photographs are first required in Great Britain.

1920 The Royal Northwest Mounted Police merge with Dominion Police to become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

1923 The Fascists Voluntary Militia is formed in Italy under Mussolini.

1924 The new British MacDonald government recognises the USSR.

1925 Weimar: The first national conference of KPD's Rotfrontkämpferbund takes place in Berlin.

1926 Birth: Douglas Johnson, historian.

1927 Volkishness: Count Franz Friedrich von Hochberg writes a letter to Johann Walthari Wlfl which he publishes in the first issue of the new Ostara series. (Roots)

1927 Weimar: The ban on public speaking for Hitler in Saxony is lifted. (Maser)

1928 Birth: Peter Gordon Dorrell, archaeologist, photographer.

1928 Birth: Sam Edwards, physicist.

1931 Birth: Boris Yeltsin, in Ural Mountains, USSR, the first president of the Republic of Russia and prime minister of the Russian Federation.

1933 Hitler makes his first radio address to the German people after becoming Chancellor. "As regards its foreign policy the National Government considers its highest mission to be the securing of the right to live and the restoration of freedom to our nation. Its determination to bring to an end the chaotic state of affairs in Germany will assist in restoring to the community of nations a State of equal value and, above all, a State which must have equal rights. It is impressed with the importance of its duty to use this nation of equal rights as an instrument for the securing and maintenance of that peace which the world requires today more than ever before..."

1933 Hitler obtains a decree from Hindenburg ordering dissolution of the Reichstag. New elections are called for March 5, 1933. Hitler has promised that this will be 'the last election.' It is a promise he will keep.

1933 Professor Fischer gives a lecture, entitled: "Racial crosses and intellectual achievement" in the Harnack House of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin. (Science)

1933 Italy publishes the Fascist Ten Commandments. (Edelheit)

1934 Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss dissolves all rival political parties and establishes one-party rule in Austria. Often described as a proto-Fascist, he is determined to keep Austria independent of both Germany and the Communists. Note: A brief but bloody civil war soon breaks out. Socialist resistance to Dollfuss' measures leads to the government's bombardment of Vienna's large Socialist quarter.

1934 Police in Vienna outlaw the sale of anti-Jewish or pro-Nazi publications on the streets.

1935 The Anglo-German Conference begins in London. Its main topic is German rearmament.

1935 Italy sends troops to East Africa.

1937 The Nazis issue a decree prohibiting German citizens from accepting any form of Nobel Prize.

1937 Press Reaction to Hitler's January 30 Speech: "A certain amount of reflection is required to classify, appraise, and digest all the varied implications left by such a speech as that made by Chancellor Adolf Hitler before the Reichstag yesterday… Germany must choose between co-operation and isolation. But Hitler…has not chosen, or if he has, he did not make known his choice yesterday. He merely indicated he was willing to discuss matters before announcing it…The era of German surprises has ended, Hitler said. That is so much gain and should help soothe European nerves. But he has not surrendered or even modified a single point in his program, although expressing his willingness to talk about all points. This is no surprise. Anyone who has devoted more than casual study to Nazism and its mentality long ago accepted it as an axiom that its program would never voluntarily be modified…As to arms limitation, Hitler definitely refuses to trade German armaments for economic concessions, as it was expected he would. However, if the speech is read correctly, he does leave the door open for an armament agreement without economic ties on the basis of "security." That means security according to the German idea and not the French idea."--New York Times

1937 Press Reaction to Hitler's January 30 Speech: "The part concerned with international affairs was a blend of defense and defiance. The Fuehrer's pronouncements have a way of proving later to have had more significance in unexpected places than they seemed to have.... He withdrew - symbolically, of course - Germany's signature from the so-called "War-guilt" paragraph of the treaty…"--London Times

1937 Press Reaction to Hitler's January 30 Speech: "The character of the Chancellor's renewed demand for equal rights is obvious.-- Le Temps

1940 WW2: Russia begins a new offensive against Finland.

1942 WW2: Vidkun Quisling becomes prime minister of Norway.

1942 WW2: Planes of the US Pacific fleet attack Japanese bases in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.

1943 WW2: Mussert forms a pro-Nazi shadow cabinet in the Netherlands.

1943 WW2: American tanks and infantry are battered by German positions at Fais pass in North Africa.

1943 Church and Reich: Feb 1-15 Emissaries of Mihai Antonescu in Bern, Switzerland, make contact with the West through Papal Nuncio Bernardini and in Bucharest through the Turkish Ambassador.

1944 The Times of Londons discloses that the last will and testament of Austrian-born Sir Henry Strakosch had converted "interest free" loans to Winston Churchill and Lord Simon into gifts. Simon had received 10,000 pounds, and Churchill twice as much. Strakosch was a multimillionaire who made his fortune in gold mining in South Africa. (Missing Years)

1944 WW2: The first of 40,000 Americans, US 7th Infantry and 25th Marine Division, land on Kwajaleinl. Within a week the atoll is taken, and more than 8,000 Japanese troops are killed.

1944 Death: Piet Mondrian, abstract painter; Composition in Blue.

1945 WW2: The US Army arrives at the Siegfriedline.

1945 WW2: US Rangers and Filipino guerrillas rescue 513 American survivors of the Bataan Death March.

1946 Hungary is declared a republic, with Zoltan Tildy as communist president and Ferenc Nagy as prime minister.

1946 Trygve Lie, a Norwegian socialist, becomes the first Secretary-General of the UN.

1947 NV United Dutch Fokker's Aircraft is established.

1947 Heavy snowstorms and sub-zero temperatures combine with a serious fuel shortage brings Britain to its economic knees. Over 4 million workers are made idle by power cuts. Coal trains can't battle through the 20ft snow drifts. Thousands of homes are without light and heat for several hours of the day.

1948 The Palestine Post building in Jerusalem is bombed.

1948 The Federation of Malaysia is formed from 9 sultanates.

1949 The 200 inch (5.08-metre) Hale telescope is first used.

1949 War time clothes rationing finally ends in Britain.

1949 The modern state of Israel formally annexes West Jerusalem.

1949 RCA Victor counters Columbia Records’ 33-1/3 long play phonograph disk, not only a smaller, 7-inch record with a big hole in the center, but an entire phonograph playing system as well. The 45-rpm, soon makes the 78-rpm record a blast from the past, and it makes possible the invention of the Jukebox.

1950 The USSR demands condemnation of Emperor Hirohito for war crimes.

1951 As Cold War priorities superseed the pursuit of justice, Alfred Krupp and 28 other German war criminals are freed.

1951 The UN condemns the People's Republic of China as an aggressor in Korea.

1951 A third A-bomb test is completed in the desert of Nevada; the first telecast of an atomic explosion.

1951 The first X-ray moving picture process is demonstrated.

1954 Death: Edwin Howard Armstrong, inventor of FM radio, when he jumps from his 13th floor apartment window.

1955 The state of Mississippi is hit by a series of tornadoes as storms rage through the American south, leaving a trail of destruction the cost of which will be tens of millions to repair. Twenty-nine people are reported to have been killed, state authorities declare.

1957 Death: Friedrich von Paulus, German field marshal.

1958 Egypt and Syria proclaim the union of their two countries in a state to be known as 'The United Arab Republic'.

1959 Swiss males vote against voting rights for women.

1959 Texas Instruments requests a patent for the Integrated Circuit.

1960 Greensboro Four: Four black students stage the first civil rights sit-in, at a segregated Greensboro, North Carolina F.W. Woolworth lunch counter.

1961 The first full-scale test of US Minuteman ICBM is successful.

1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson rejects Charles de Gaulle's plan for a neutral Vietnam.

1965 Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 others are arrested in protest against voter discrimination in Selma, Alabama.

1966 Death: Buster Keaton, known as 'Old Stone Face,' innovative US comic.

1968 The Nam: The infamous photo of Saigon police chief Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a Viet Cong officer with a pistol shot to the head is first seen.

1968 Former Vice-President Richard Nixon announces his candidacy for President.

1968 The Nam: US troops drive the North Vietnamese out of Tan Son Nhut airport in Saigon as South Vietnam President Nguyen Van Thieu declares martial law.

1970 West-Germany and the USSR sign a natural gas contract.

1972 The first scientific hand-held calculator, the HP-35, is introduced at $395.

1975 Otis Francis Tabler becomes the first open homosexual to get security clearance to work for the US Defense Department.

1976 Death: Edgar Pangborn, sci-fi author; Judgment of Eve, Davy.

1976 Death: Werner C. Heisenberg, physicist; Nobel 1932, field theory.

1977 Death: Edmond Hamilton, US sci-fi author; Danger Planet.

1979 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years in exile in France.

1981 Death: Donald W. Douglas, US aviation pionieer, builder, at 88.

1981 The French government sends 60 Mirage fighter jets to Iraq.

1984 The British Chancellor of the Exchequer announces the demise of the half penny decimal coin.

1984 China and the Netherlands resume diplomatic relations.

1987 Terry Williams of Los Gatos, California, wins the largest slot machine payoff to that time. He put $4.9 million in his pockets after getting four lucky 7s on a machine in Reno, Nevada.

1990 Bulgaria's government resigns after the ruling Communists fail to entice the fledgling opposition movement into a power-sharing deal until free elections.

1990 Yugoslavia deploys troops, tanks and warplanes in Kosovo province, where police battle ethnic Albanians demanding political reforms.

1991 South African President F. W. De Klerk opens parliament with a speech promising the demolition of the remaining pillars of apartheid.

1992 US President George HW Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign the Camp David declaration which states that their two countries no longer regard each other as adversaries.

1994 UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali backs the use of air power in Bosnia.

1995 Communist Vietnam opens a liaison office in Washington, DC, for the time in the 20 years since the end of the Vietnam War.
















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