History: February 24

February 24

0303 The first official Roman edict for the persecution of Christians is issued by Roman Emperor Galerius Valerius Maximianus. (Bradley)

0786 Death: Pepin the Short, of Gaul. His dominions are divided between his sons Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.

1208 St. Francis of Assisi, at 26, receives his vocation in the Italian village of Portiuncula. He will go on to found the Franciscans the following year, and will be regarded by some Catholics as the greatest of all Christian saints. (Bradley)

1304 Birth: Muhammad ibn Battutah, Arab travel writer; Travels in Asia & Africa.

1389 Battle at Falköping: The Danes defeat King Albert of Sweden.

1463 Birth: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, in Italy, scholar, platonist.

1500 Birth: Charles V, king of Spain; the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope. Reigning 1519-56, it is Charles who will officially pronounce Martin Luther an outlaw and heretic. (Bradley)

1525 Battle of Pavia: In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Karel V captures the French king Francois I in Italy.

1528 Hungarian king János Zápolyai recognizes Sultan Suleiman's suzerainty.

1538 Austrian King Ferdinand of Hapsburg and King János Zápolyai of Hungary, the two kings of Hungary, conclude the Peace of Grosswardein.

1541 Santiago in Chile is founded by Pedro de Valvidia.

1552 Privileges of the Hanseatic League in England are abrogated.

1597 Flemish painter Frederick of Valckenborch becomes porter of Frankfurt-on-Main.

1619 Birth: Charles Le Brun, in Paris. "Painter and designer who became the arbiter of artistic production in France during the last half of the 17th century. Possessing both technical facility and the capacity to organize and carry out many vast projects, Le Brun personally created or supervised the production of most of the paintings, sculptures, and decorative objects commissioned by the French government for three decades during the reign of Louis XIV. Under his direction French artists created a homogeneous style that came to be accepted throughout Europe as the paragon of academic and propagandistic art."

1697 Birth: Bernard S. Albinus, German surgeon, anatomist.

1779 US Revolutionary War: George Rogers Clark captures Vincennes, Indiana from the British. "...Clark and his force of approximately 170 Americans and Frenchmen made an epic 18-day trek from Kaskaskia through the freezing flood waters of the Illinois country. At times in icy water up to their shoulders, it was Clark's determined leadership that brought them through this incredible midwinter journey. They arrived in Vincennes after nightfall on Feb.23, 1779. The French citizens, eager to again renounce the British, warmly greeted Clark's men, providing food and dry gunpowder. Hamilton's garrison now consisted of approximately 40 British soldiers and a similar number of French volunteers and militia from Detroit and Vincennes. These French troops were not enthusiastic to fire on the enemy when they realized that the French inhabitants of the town again had embraced the Americans. Clark's men surrounded the fort and gave the impression of having a much larger army. Flags sufficient for an army of 500 had been brought from Kaskaskia and now were unfurled and carried within view of the fort. The American soldiers, who were experienced woodsmen, could maintain a rate of fire that convinced the British that the army indeed was large in number. These woodsmen were armed with..."

1786 Birth: Wilhelm Karl Grimm, in Hanau, Germany, historian, story teller; with his brother Jacob, compiler of Grimm's Fairy Tales.

1786 Charles Cornwallis is appointed Governor-General of India.

1803 US Chief Justice John Marshall, by refusing to rule on the case of Marbury vs. Madison, asserts the authority of the judicial branch; the first time the US Supreme Court rules a law unconstitutional.

1807 17 die and 15 are wounded in a crush to witness the execution of Holloway, Heggerty and Elizabeth Godfrey in England.

1809 Birth: Albert Schäffle, German sociologist; Abriss der Soziologie.

1813 War of 1812: Off Guiana, the American sloop Hornet sinks the British sloop Peacock. "...The Hornet soon afterwards hauled her wind to the westward, and on the 14th of February, when cruising off Pernambuco, captured an English brig, with about 23,000 dollars in specie on board. Having removed the money and destroyed the prize, Captain Lawrence cruised off Surinam until the 22nd; then stood for Demerara, and on the 24th chased a brig, but was obliged to haul off on account of the shoals at the entrance of the Demerara river. Previously to giving up the chase, the Hornet discovered a brig-of-war, with English colours flying, at anchor without the bar. This was the 18-gun Brig-sloop Espirgle, sixteen 32-pound carronades and two sixes, Captain John Taylor, refitting her rigging. At half past three o'clock in the afternoon, while beating round Caroband bank to get at the Espirgle, the Hornet discovered a sail on her weather quarter bearing down on her. This was the 18-gun brig-sloop Peacock, sixteen 24-pound carronades and two sixes, Captain William Peake; who had only sailed from the Espirgle's anchorage the same morning at ten o'clock. At twenty minutes past four the latter hoisted her colours; and at ten minutes past five the Hornet, having kept close to the wind to weather the Peacock, tacked for that purpose and hoisted her colours. At twenty-five minutes past five, in passing each other on opposite tacks, within half-pistol shot, the ship and brig exchanged broadside. After this the Peacock wore to renew the action on the other tack; when the Hornet, quickly bearing up, received the Peacock's starboard broadside; then, at about thirty-five minutes past five, ran the latter close on board the starboard quarter. In this position the Hornet poured in so heavy and well directed a fire, that, at fifty minutes past five, the Peacock, having six feet [of] water in the hold and being cut to pieces in hull and masts, hoisted from her fore-rigging an ensign, union down, as a signal of distress. Shortly afterwards her main mast went by the board..."

1821 Mexico gains independence from Spain.

1831 Birth: Georg Leo earl von Caprivi, German chancellor, premier of Prussia.

1833 Birth: Eduard earl von Taaffe, Austrian premier (1868-93).

1835 Siwinowe Kesibwi, or Shawnee Sun, becomes the first Indian language monthly magazine in the US.

1836 The Alamo: Some 3,000 Mexicans continue their assault on the Alamo, with its 182 Texan defenders.

1836 Birth: Winslow Homer, American painter. "Due to its geographical and political history, the United States was heavily influenced by the styles in art and architecture already developed to a high point in the mature societies of Europe. During the 19th century, however, the country developed distinctive variations of the European models. Finally, by the middle of the 20th century, U.S. masters and schools of art were exerting a powerful worldwide influence over art and architecture. Winslow Homer contributed a large amount to the realm of American art. Born in Boston, Winslow Homer spent his childhood in then-rural Cambridge. He began his career about 1855 as an apprentice to a lithographer, for whom he produced sheet-music covers and other commercial works. After two years, at age 21, he set out..."

1839 The steam shovel is patented by William Otis of Philadelphia.

1841 Birth: John Phillip Holland, inventor of the modern submarine.

1848 France becomes a republic for the second time, following the abdication of King Louis Phillipe.

1852 Birth: George A. Moore, in Ireland, painter, novelist; Esther Waters.

1854 Birth: Franz Courtens, Flemish painter.

1855 The US Court of Claims is established for cases against the government.

1860 Birth: Daniel Berkeley Updike, printer, publisher, writer; Printing Types.

1868 The US House of Representatives votes to impeach President Andrew Johnson by 126 to 47.

1881 The De Lesseps Company begins work on a Panama Canal.

1885 Birth: Joseph Sprinzak, Speaker of Israeli Knesset, 1949-59.

1885 Birth: Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski, Polish novelist, satirist; Black Wings.

1885 Birth: Admiral Chester Nimitz, in charge of the US Pacific Fleet in WW2. "...the son of Chester Bernard and Anna (Henke) Nimitz. His father died before he was born. During his early years his grandfather Charles H. Nimitz, a German immigrant, former seaman, and owner of the Nimitz Hotel, served as the father figure whom Nimitz credited with shaping his character and values. In 1890 Chester's mother married her late husband's younger brother, William Nimitz, who managed the St. Charles Hotel in Kerrville, where Chester eventually became chief handyman. Young Nimitz, with little prospect of a college education otherwise, determined to seek appointment to the United States Military Academy. On learning that no such appointment was immediately available, he applied for the United States Naval Academy instead. He graduated seventh in his class of 114 at Annapolis on January 30, 1905. After two years' training as a passed midshipman aboard the U.S.S. Ohio, he was commissioned an ensign and given command of the old Spanish gunboat Panay in the Philippines. After transfer to the destroyer Decatur, he ran the ship aground and was court-martialed, reprimanded, and denied his request for battleship duty; he was assigned to a submarine instead. In four consecutive undersea commands, he became a leading "pigboat" authority and built a reservoir of experience that proved invaluable in both world wars..."

1887 Paris and Brussels become the first capitals to be linked by telephone.

1887 Birth: Mary Ellen Chase, US linguistic, author; White Gate.

1888 Louisville, Kentucky becomes the first government in the US to adopt the Australian ballot system.

1891 French troops under Captain Archinard occupy Diéna in the West Sudan.

1893 Volkishness: Guido von List lectures on the ancient cult of Wotan and its priesthood to the nationalist Verein, "Deusche Geschichte." List claims that this extinct religion was the national religion of the Teutons before it came to be destroyed by Christianity. In time, this ancient priesthood will form the basis of his entire political mythology.

1894 Nicaragua captures Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

1895 The Cuban Revolutionary Party declares the beginning of The Second War of Cuban Independence.

1898 Birth: Kurt Tank, German WW2 aircraft designer and test pilot. "...As the war was coming to an end for Germany and the plight of the Japanese armed forces grew ever bleaker, a very large influx of the latest aviation technology Germany had to offer was given to or bought by the Japanese air forces in the hopes that it would stem the tide of defeats and ever increasing pressure to put up superior aircraft to battle the newest airplanes the allies were putting into the field.

One such German aircraft was the Focke-Wulf Ta 152, whose blueprints were purchased by the Japanese in April of 1945. The development of the Ta 152 ( the Ta stood for Kurt Tank, the designer of this aircraft ) came about as the Luftwaffe saw the threat of high-altitude bombers and reconnaissance aircraft which could be fielded by the allies and which would prove difficult, if not impossible, by current Luftwaffe interceptors to engage. Thus, even before high-flying allied bombers began operations over Europe, the German aviation industry was hard at work..."

1899 Birth: Jacob Presser, Dutch historian, writer; Down-fall.

1902 Boer War: At the Battle at Yzer Spruit, Boer General De la Rey defeats the British.

1903 The US forces Cuba to cede Guantanamo Bay.

1908 Japan officially agrees to restrict emigration to the US.

1909 Birth: August William Derleth, in Sauk City, Wisconsin, writer; Judge Peck Mysteries, Still is the Summer Night, The Shield of the Valiant.

1909 Birth: Max Black, Dutch/British/US philosopher; analytical philosophy.

1912 Italy bombs Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.

1912 The Jewish organization Hadassah is founded in New York City.

1914 Birth: David Langdon, cartoonist, illustrator.

1917 Birth: William Fairbank, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, physicist; superconductivity.

1917 The Zimmerman note, written by German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman (above) to the German Ambassador in Mexico, is turned over to President Wilson by British intelligence, who had earlier intercepted and decoded the message. The note indicates that if Germany and the United States were to go to war, Germany would seek an alliance with Mexico -- offering the Mexicans Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in return for their efforts. The British had held onto the note, waiting until the most propitious moment to present it to Wilson. It now becomes one of the most important factors in leading him to declare war on Germany. Note: "Zimmermann sent the telegram to the German Ambassador in Washington, via three routes: via radiotelegram direct to North America, via Sweden, and by the American embassy in Berlin via the US embassy in Copenhagen and thence to Washington. The message was in a German diplomatic code. British cryptanalysts had received copies from all three routes, and had cracked the code in their legendary Room 40 in the Admiralty. While they knew the provocative contents of the telegraph, they needed a way to reveal it to the US government without letting the Germans know that they had the ability to read essentially all of their diplomatic cable traffic. With the help of an employee in the Mexican Telegraph Office, a British agent in Mexico had obtained a copy of the telegram which had been forwarded from Washington to Mexico City, with minor changes from the original cable. This they handed over to the US Government, and the Germans believed that they intercept had taken place in North America, not in Europe."

1920 Weimar: The German DAP gives the first public reading of its "Twenty-five Points." Hitler later describes this event in Mein Kampf as "the first great public demonstration of our young movement."

1920 Estonia gains independence from Russia.

1921 Herbert Hoover becomes US Secretary of Commerce.

1921 The Polish-Soviet Repatriation Agreement permits 700,000 Jews to enter Poland from the USSR. About 800,000 Jewish refugees will be granted Polish citizenship.

1922 Birth: Richard Hamilton, painter.

1922 Henri Landru, better known as 'Bluebeard', is executed in France for murdering 10 of his sweethearts.

1924 The Greek parliament proclaims a republic.

1928 Birth: Michael Harrington, in St Louis, Missouri, socialist, author; Fragments of Century.

1933 Nazi police raid the Communist Party headquarters in Berlin. An official announcement says the police have discovered plans for a Communist uprising.

1933 Less than a month after Hitler had become German Chancellor, the German communist party makes its a final demonstration in Berlin.

1933 The Stahlhelm (Steel Helmet), the SA and SS are officially granted auxiliary police status.

1933 The League of Nations tells Japan to pull out of Manchuria.

1934 Birth: Bettino Craxi, Italy's first socialist premier, 1983-87.

1938 A toothbrush with nylon bristles goes on sale in New Jersey; the first commercial nylon product.

1938 Nazi-instigated disturbances erupt throughout Austria after Chancellor Schuschnigg calls for a plebiscite (referendum) on Austrian independence.

1939 WW2: Hungary joins the Anti-Comintern Pact and outlaws the Arrow Cross.

1940 Birth: Theo Bosch, Dutch humanist, architect; Nieuwmarkt Amsterdam.

1941 WW2: An anti-Nazi meeting is held at Noordermarkt, Amsterdam.

1941 WW2: The first brief action between the British and Germans takes place near El Agheila.

1941 WW2: Hitler makes his fifth major speech of WW2 in Munich: "There was a time when Italy, fascist Italy, which is engaged in the same struggle as we are, which is shut in the same way as we are, which is as overpopulated as we are and, up until now, has been given no better chance of living than we, kept powerful enemies engaged in our behalf. Numerous British ships were engaged in the Mediterranean; numerous British airplanes were engaged in the African colonies. This was a very good thing for us, for, as I told you the other day, our warfare at sea is just beginning. The reason for this is that we first wanted to train new crews for the new submarines which will now make their appearance on the scene. Let no one doubt that they are about to appear..."

1942 Death: Anton Drexler, cofounder of the "German Workers Party" (DAP). It was Drexler who invited Hitler to join the DAP and then accompanied him on speaking engagements throughout Germany and Austria during the early twenties. Drexler broke with Hitler in 1925 and died in Munich virtually forgotten.

1942 WW2: The Voice of America begins broadcasting in German.

1943 WW2: Rommel is appointed commander of Army Group Afrika, and the Germans pull back to the Eastern Dorsale, leaving numerous booby traps behind.

1944 WW2: Merrill's Marauders, a specially trained group of American soldiers, begin their ground campaign against Japan into Burma. "...While Malone (above) was in the hospital, the Marauders and the Chinese had finally taken Myitkyina in August. Later that month the Marauders were reorganized as the 475th Regiment. Now part of the Mars Task Force, the long-range penetration force for Burma, the unit drove south along the Ledo Road from Myitkyina to Tongwa-Mo, completing that action by January. In February it drove east, with more heavy fighting. They were supplied through air drops at the time, Malone recalled, but they also had 500 Army mules to carry supplies and equipment. "I hated those mules," Malone said. "They were big Army mules and would kick and bite all the time. I went to see the doctor one time because my leg had swollen, and had to wait while he doctored the mules. I gave up and left, took some aspirin and the swelling later came down." After the Japanese retreated south in February, the task force remained in camp for about a month, then was pulled out of Burma..."

1945 WW2: Hitler radio broadcast: "The consciousness of my duty and my work does not allow me to leave headquarters at the moment when, for the twenty-fifth time, that date is being commemorated on which the fundamental program of our movement (The 25 Points) was proclaimed and approved in Munich. The evening of the twenty-fourth of February was, under the auspices of prudence, a development the significance of which probably only today becomes clear to us in its terrible meaning. An irreconcilable enemy was already at that time united in a common struggle against the German people, in the same manner as it is today..."

1945 WW2: Egypt and Syria declare war on Nazi-Germany.

1945 WW2: American troops liberate the Philippine city of Manila from the Japanese.

1945 WW2: US forces liberate prisoners of war in the Los Baños Prison in the Philippines.

1946 Juan Peron is elected President of Argentina.

1948 The Communist Party seizes complete control of Czechoslovakia.

1949 Franz von Papen is sentenced to 12 years in a labor camp for war crimes. "...In April 1945, von Papen was arrested by the Allies. He was one of the accused at the Nuremberg Trial, but was acquitted since his participation in sponsoring the war of aggression could not be proved; in 1949, a de-Nazification court sentenced him to twelve years in a labor camp. However, since he had already spent some years in prison, he was released immediately after an appeal..."

1949 Israel and Egypt sign an armistice agreement.

1949 The Space Age begins this day when a V-2/WAC-Corporal is launched into outer space from White Sands, New Mexico to a height of 400 km.

1950 Clement Atlee is back in Downing Street after Labour's General Election victory, but only after the closest vote in 100 years.

1952 The French evacuate Hoa Binh in Vietnam in order to amass for the Tonkin Delta drive.

1953 Death: Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt, Germany's most experienced general at the start of WW2; later promoted to field marshal. Rundstedt led his army successfully in the Polish and French campaigns of 1939-1940. But Hitler and Rundstedt clashed so during the invasion of Russia in 1941 that the field marshal gave up his command and took over the German army of occupation in France. Hitler retired him from command in July 1944, but eventually called him back to direct "The Battle of the Bulge."

1955 The Pact of Baghdad between Iraq and Turkey is signed.

1959 Khrushchev rejects the Western plan for the Big Four meeting on Germany.

1961 Explorer 10 fails to reach Earth orbit.

1962 The US performs a nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site.

1965 East German President Ulbricht visits Egypt.

1968 The Nam: North Vietnamese troops capture the imperial palace in Hue, South Vietnam.

1968 The first pulsar is discovered, CP 1919, by Jocelyn Burnell at Cambridge.

1969 Mariner 6 is launched for a Mars flyby.

1971 Algeria nationalizes French oil companies.

1972 The Nam: Hanoi negotiators walk out of the peace talks in Paris to protest at US air raids on North Vietnam.

1974 Pakistan officially recognizes Bangladesh.

1977 President Carter announces that, henceforth, all US foreign aid will be considered in relation to the beggar nation's human rights record.

1984 Iran-Iraq War: Iraq resumes its air attacks on Iran.

1986 Voyager 2 makes the first ever Uranus flyby.

1986 The US Supreme Court rules unconstitutional an Indianapolis law that defines pornography as discrimination against women.

1988 The US Supreme Court defends the right to satirize public figures when it votes 8-0 to overturn a $200,000 settlement awarded the Reverend Jerry Falwell over the parody of him in Hustler Magazine.

1991 After a month long air campaign, General Norman Schwarzkopf, commander of the coalition army, sends in the ground forces, beginning a lightning, multi-pronged ground assault against Iraq.

1992 General Motors Corporation announces a record $4.5 billion loss in 1991 and says it will close 21 plants and idle 74,000 workers in the next four years.

1996 Cuba shoots down two unarmed planes flown by pilots belonging to a Cuban exile group who are looking for boat people to rescue.

1997 A nationally televised funeral for China's 'paramount leader' Deng Xiaoping is held at a military hospital in Beijing.

2001 The mass slaughter of thousands of pigs and cattle on eight farms across England begins in a bid to wipe out foot-and-mouth disease.

2001 Colin Powell arrives in the Middle East on his first overseas trip as US secretary of state.


















Visit: Visit:
Click Here to email the History: One Day At a Time webmaster.
Subscribe to History1Day
Powered by groups.yahoo.com