Governor Lucius Antonius Saturninus of Germany becomes
emperor of Rome: With a handle like that he was gonna work
All Jews are expelled from Laibach, Austria. "...The expulsion of the Jews from
Styria and Carinthia (1496) did not at first affect those of Laibach, and in
1510 Emperor Maximilian decreed that they should be protected in their ancient
privileges; but in 1513 he yielded to the demands of the citizens, and
prohibited the Jews from engaging in mercantile pursuits. Finally, on Jan. 1,
1515, upon the petition of the citizens, they were expelled from Laibach.
Occasionally Jews seem to have been in the city after that time..."
Wilkins, "English churchman
and scientist who
was one of the founders
first secretary of the Royal Society, London. He wrote for the common
reader the Discovery (1638) and the Discourse (1640) which showed how
reason and experience supported Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo rather than
Aristotlian or literal biblical doctrines. In 1641, he anonymously published a
small but comprehensive treatise on cryptography. In Mathematical Magick (1648)
he described and illustrated the balance lever, wheel, pulley, wedge and screw
in a part called "Archimedes or Mechanical Powers" and in a second part
"Daedalus or Mechanical Motions" such strange devices as flying machines,
artificial spiders, a land yacht, and a submarine.
"1622 The papacy adopts January 1 as
the beginning of the new year, instead of March 25.
The Salem Witch Trails:
"...The Salem witch trials of Colonial America
resulted in a number of convictions and executions for witchcraft in 1692 in Massachusetts, the result
of a period of factional infighting and Puritan witch hysteria which led to the
deaths of at least 25 people and the imprisonment of scores more. Witch trials were held in Europe several hundred years
before those in Salem...The witch trials ended in January 1693, although people already
jailed for witchcraft were not all released until the next spring. The royal
appointed governor of Massachusetts, Sir William
Phips, disturbed when his wife was accused of witchcraft, ended them by
appealing to the Boston-area clergy headed by Increase Mather. In October 3, 1692, Increase Mather published "Cases
of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits."
In it, Increase Mather
stated "It were better that Ten Suspected Witches should escape, than that the
Innocent Person should be Condemned." Echoes of this phrase can be found in the
United States of America's
innocent-until-proven-guilty judicial system of today. This incident
was so profound that it helped end the influence of the Puritan faith on the governing
of New England...It is not
widely believed any longer that the girls were actually possessed by the devil
nor that their neighbors had anything to do with their symptoms. So what really
happened? Some experts believe the accusers were motivated by jealousy or spite
and their behavior was an act. Some believe they were afflicted by hysteria, a form of mental
In 1976, a
psychologist named Linnda Caporeal discovered the girls' symptoms (convulsive
jerking, stupor, delirium, and hallucinations) precisely mirrored those of
poisoning by ergot. Ergot is a poisonous fungus that often grows on cereal
grains, especially rye, which was commonly grown around
Salem. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is a hallucinogenic drug
that is derived from ergot today. [Woolf, 2004]. A new study has shown that a
primitive form of LSD was infecting the wheat supply on one side of the village.
The effects of the drug made the people affected scream, run fever, and shake
violently. The people of Salem did not have any other explanation except
for that of witchcraft..."
The Salem Witch Trails:
Ann Putnam Jr., one of the leading accusers, publicly apologizes for her actions
The Salem Witch Trails:
The colony passes a legislative bill restoring the rights and good names of
those accused of witchcraft and grants 600 pounds in restitution to their
Burke: British author/famous Whig (Philosophy & Inquiry, Reflections on the Revolution).
Revere, silversmith/US patriot, makes his first successful ride.
Anthony Wayne is born this day, and it is almost certain that it didn't suit
him for one reason or another.
1751 The worlds most celebrated
holiday, New Years Day, has been observed on this day in most English-speaking
countries since 1751 when the British calendar act was passed. Before that,
folks wished everyone a Happy New Year on March 25, to coincide, approximately,
with the beginning of spring.
The Salem Witch Trails:
Salem Village is renamed Danvers.
raises a Continental flag with thirteen stripes before his quarters in
Charles Alexandre Lesueur, "French naturalist
artist who is remembered for high quality natural history illustrations. He
travelled to Australia under Nicolas Baudin on a scientific expedition (1800-04)
and returned to France with collection of over 100,000 zoological specimens,
including some 2,500 new species. In 1815, he began an association with William
Maclure on a scientific excursion to the principal islands of the Lesser
Antilles to make a study of the geology, followed by further work in the U.S.
revising Maclure's geological maps. From 1816-37, while living in the U.S., he
explored the Mississippi Valley. Lesueur followed a particular interest
ichthyology. He made the first scientific study of the archaeological
prehistoric mounds in vicinity of New Harmony, Indiana.
The Act of Union creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland goes
into force. The mass of the Irish, however, being Catholics, are still excluded
from the government. George III allows only Church-of-England Irish to sit in
Italian astronomer, Guiseppe Piazzi
the first and largest asteroid
, 1 Ceres,
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Piazzi proposed
the name Ceres
Ferdinandea, in honour of Sicily's patron Roman goddess, and his patron, the
king. It revolves around the Sun in 4.6 yrs, with diameter about 960 km (600
miles). This sighting followed that of the planet Uranus (1781) by the British
astronomer William Herschel (1783-1822). Piazzi's discovery provided a body
between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter fitting the so-called "Titius-Bode's law."
German astronomer Johann Olbers later found more of these bodies now called
"asteroids" or "minor bodies of Solar System". Over a thousand such objects are
Charles Ellet, Jr, "American engineer
wire-cable suspension bridge in America, across the Schuylkill River at
Fairmont, Penn. In 1849 the 1,010 foot span suspension bridge he built across
the Ohio River at Wheeling
, WV was the longest of its kind in the world. He also built the "Mountain Top
Track" across the summit of the Blue Ridge at Rock Fish Gap, VA in 1854.
Advocate of the battering ram as a naval war vessel; he was commissioned a
colonel by Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. Ellet converted nine steam ships into
ramming vessels and led them into the victorious Federal attack upon the
Confederate fleet at the Battle
Memphis on the Mississippi River, 6 Jun 1862. He died
from a pistol
ball shot to the knee during the battle.
Samuel Cunliffe Lister, "(1st Baron Masham of Swinton) was an English inventor
of successful wool-combing and waste-silk spinning machines
demand for wool that resulted from less expensive products stimulated the
Australian wool trade. By 1856, he had several mills in Yorkshire, and abroad.
He also created machines to use "chassum," comprising damaged cocoons, remnants
or fibres previously rejected as waste in silk-spinning. By 1867, after ten
years in development, eventually those machines made him a further fortune. In
1867, he introduced velvet power looms for making piled fabrics. His
inventiveness included a 1848 patent for automatic compressed air brakes for
railways. The textile manufacturing company
he established in 1838
Rodolfo Amadeo Lanciani, "Italian archaeologist
, who was an
authority on the ancient topography of Ostia and Rome. He published a
classical, medieval, and modern Rome in Forma Urbis Romae (1893-1901). This
definitive atlas plots streets and structures of ancient Rome against those of
the modern city (c. 1900) in a second color. Several parts of the maps
are dated and no longer considered correct, but other parts retain their value
and some parts show ruins no longer visible in to the normal visitor in Rome.
The University of Rome appointed him as director of excavations (1875). He
discovered many important antiquities at Rome, Tivoli, and Ostia. He became
professor of Roman topography at that university in 1878.
The lamp is lit at the
first iron pile lighthouse in the US built on Minot's Ledge
just outside the Boston Harbor. The loss of 40 ships there in 1832-41, showed a
light was badly needed. Some favored a granite tower like England's famed
Eddystone Light, but Capt. William H. Swift of the Topographical Department, who
planned the lighthouse, chose an iron pile tower (an open, spidery structure
drilled into the rock) as more practical to build on the mostly submerged ledge.
Built for about $39,000 in 1847-49, it was the first lighthouse in the US to be
exposed to the ocean's full fury. It was feared to be unsafe by its keepers, who
reported it swayed badly in storms.
The structure was swept away
in a great gale on 16 Apr 1851.*"
Eugène Anatole Demarcay, "French chemist
spectroscopically discovered the element europium (1901) in material carefully
separated from samarium magnesium nitrate. His study of terpenes and ethers
helped the perfume industry. Despite the loss of an eye in a explosion while
studying nitrogen sulphides, he continued vacuum studies of volatility of metals
at low temperatures and pressures. He designed a machine to reach low
temperatures by compressing gases and then allowing them to expand. Using high
temperature spark spectra from platinum electrodes he produced bright lines to
study rare earths. His separation method for rare earths used fractional
crystallization in aqueous solution. When asked by the Curies, he used
spectroscopy to verify the existence of radium.
The first successful
US steam fire engine
in Cincinnati, Ohio,
named the Uncle Joe Ross after the city councilman who championed it. Four
horses pulled the three-wheeled, five-ton carriage. It propelled up to six water
streams, 1-3/4" diam., up to 240 ft range. Inventors Abel Shawk and Alexander
Latta, took nine months to build it in their workshop at a cost of $10,000*
boiler was similar to a locomotive boiler, and had the capacity of the six
biggest double-engine hand pumpers. (The first attempt in the U.S. to build a
steam fire engine had failed. Paul Rapsey Hodge gave it a public test in New
York, on 27 Mar 1841, but the engine was abandoned. Its 8-ton weight was too
heavy, and its fire showered sparks.).
James George Frazer, "Scottish anthropologist
, folklorist, classical scholar,
of The Golden
Bough, a study in Comparative Religion, which traced
of human behavior. This vast collection
of savage and
civilized beliefs and customs, myth, magic, religion, ritual, and taboo is
considered among the greatest works of anthropology. It was named after the
golden bough in the sacred grove at Nemi, near Rome. It began as two volumes in
1890 and became 12 volumes by 1915. He did no field work; his research
library-based. Although still considered a storehouse of ethnographic
information, his theories belong in history rather than current ideas of
anthropology. His notions of totemism were subsequenty destroyed by
William Thomas Councilman, "American pathologist
remembered for his contribution in a monograph
dysentery (1891) which described detailed observations of it and its parasite.
His post-M.D. (1878) work included many autopsies, sparking his interest in
pathology. He studied in Europe (1880-83), where pathology was more advanced
than in the U.S. In his first significant research, he confirmed Laveran's
discovery of the sporozoan parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium malariae
(1893-94), and upon returning home, was the first in the U.S. to describe and
picture it. Councilman also did research on diphtheria, cerebrospinal
meningitis, nephritis, and smallpox. He was the principal founder of the
American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists.
Marcellin Boule, "French paleontologist
geologist and physical anthropologist who made the first complete reconstruction
of a Neanderthal skeleton (La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France, 1908). His report on
Neanderthal anatomy was the most complete report since the species was first
discovered in 1856. He believed they were a separate species, not a human
ancestor, but evolutionary dead-end. He published one of the first illustrations
description of them as a shuffling, bent-kneed, and hairy creature capable of
"rudimentary intellectual abilities" became stereotypical. New research in the
this view, when
the arthritic condition of the individual was recognized. He wrote Les Hommes
fossiles (1921; Fossil Men).
Alexander Stanley Elmore, "British technologist who with his brother Francis Edward
, jointly developed flotation
processes to separate
valuable ore, such
as copper, from the gangue (worthless rock) with which it is associated when
mined. In 1898, they obtained a patent for the first practical equipment (British
patent No. 21,948
). Pulverized ore is mixed with water and brought into
contact with thick oil. The oil entraps the metallic constituents, which are
afterwards separated, and gangue passed away with the water. They installed
their equipment at mines
Wales, northern England, and at the Broken
lead and zinc mines
Australia. Today, flotation methods remain vital in the mining industry,
processing millions of tons of ores each year.
The metric system
throughout the German Empire.*
1795, the metric system had been the standard in France. A committeee from the
French Academy used a decimal system and defined the meter to be one
10-millionths of the distance from the equator to the Earth's Pole. For the
metric unit of mass, the gram was defined as the mass of one cubic centimeter of
pure water at a given temperature. By act Congress, the use of the metric system
was legalized in the US (1866), but was not made obligatory. On 20 May 1875, the
Treaty of the Meter was signed by twenty countries, including the United States,
at the International Metric Convention.
Albert Hoyt Taylor, "American physicist and radio engineer
, known as
the "father of navy radar" whose work
laid the foundation for US radar development. In Sep 1922, with Leo C. Young, he
proposed the detection of intruding ships by transmitting a curtain of
high-frequency radio waves across harbour entrances, or between ships, with a
receiver to detect disturbances caused by ships moving in the electromagnetic
field. Taylor became superintendent of the Radio Division at the
newly-established Naval Research Laboratory (1923-45). In 1934, he directed
Robert Page to experiment with pulsed high-frequency radio signals for aircraft
detection. In 1937, the first 200-MHz shipboard radar was installed. He also
investigated ionospheric effects.
Work begins at the
first regularly organized
state agricultural experimental station
in the US It was located in
Middleton, Connecticut, having been approved 20 Jul 1875, with an appropriation
of $2,800 being approved 1 Oct 1865. The first director was Wilbur Olin Atwater
served until 9 Apr 1877. Assistance had been offered in the form of $1,000 from
Orange Judd, owner of the American Agriculurist, and the free use of the
chemical laboratory of Orange Judd Hall at Wesleyan University at Middletown was
provided by its trustees.*
Important discoveries have come out of research at the station, including
vitamin A (in 1913), hybrid corn, the first soil fungicide (1889) and a fungus
to control gypsy moth populations.
Harriet Brooks, "Canadian nuclear physicist
who was probably the first to observe
the recoil of the
atomic nucleus as nuclear particles were emitted during radioactive decay.
During the years 1901-05, she contributed much to the new science of
radioactivity. Working with Rutherford, she measured the rate at which radium
released radon (and other gases) into the air. They demonstrated that the
diffusion of the emanations of radium both behaved like a a gas, and that this
gas had a high (over 100) molecular weight. Rutherford credited her work
identifying the release of radon as crucial to developing his theory of the
transmutation of one element into another. She died at the age of 56, from
leukemia or a like disease related to radiation exposure.
Ernest Jones, "Welsh psychoanalyst
introduced psychoanalysis into Great Britain and North America. His admiration
for Sigmund Freud's approach to neurosis led him to learn German to read Freud's
work. This led to a lifelong association with Freud from 1908. Jones founded the
International Journal of Psychoanalysis (1920), and was its editor for two
decades. In 1925, he founded and was director of the London Clinic of
Psycho-Analysis. When the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, Jones went to Vienna to
enable Freud's escape with his family to London. He published extensively,
including a definitive three-volume biography of Freud (1953-57). His interests
included chess, and as a youth, figure skating about which he later wrote a
Birth: Wilhelm Canaris,
German admiral/head German military intelligence.
The first municipal
health laboratory in the US is established in Providence, Rhode Island. It
was run by Dr Charles V. Chapin
pioneer epidemiologist, assisted by Dr Gardner T. Swarts as the Medical
Inspector. (It was preceded by some experimental work in the previous
lab's primary purpose was the analysis of food and water, but when spurred by a
typhoid epidemic, it turned to the study of micro-organisms. Chapin was was one
of the first people to recognize the link between spread of contagious disease
and people living in filth
- such persons use
very little soap and water and allow their faces, hands, belongings and
dwellings to become and remain smeared with mucus, saliva, pus and other
Ellis Island opens this day to begin the processing of what would amount to more
than 20 million immigrants to the United States. A fifteen-year old Irish girl
named Annie Moore becomes the first that would would pass through during the
next 62 years. The immigration center was also
used as a deportation station, and later, a Coast Guard Station, and then, a
national park. Ellis Island is now a museum with it's former function
transferred to the US's southern border.
Satyendra Nath Bose, "Indian mathematician
collaborated with Albert Einstein to develop a theory of statistical quantum
mechanics, now called Bose-Einstein statistics. In his early work in quantum
theory (1924), Bose wrote
Planck black-body radiation law using a quantum statistics of photons, Plank's
Law and the Light Quantum Hypothesis. Bose sent his ideas to Einstein, who
extended this technique to integral spin particles. Dirac coined the name boson
for particles obeying these statistics. Among other things, Bose-Einstein
statistics explain how an electric current can flow in superconductors forever,
with no loss. Bose also worked on X-ray diffraction, electrical properties of
the ionosphere and thermoluminescence.
Edgar Hoover, Washington DC, Director of US Fedreal Bureau of
Wilhelm Röntgen announces
He sent copies of his manuscript and some of his x-ray photographs to several
renowned physicists and friends, including Lord Kelvin in Glasgow and Henre
Poincare in Paris. Four days later, on 5 Jan 1896, Die Presse published the news
in a front-page article which described the discovery and suggested new methods
of medical diagnoses might be made with this new kind of radiation. One day
later, the London Standard cabled the news to other countries around the world
about the "a light which for the purpose of photography will penetrate wood,
flesh, cloth, and most other organic substances." It printed the first
English-language account the next day.
The five boroughs of New York become the city of New York this day. It as called
'the consolidation' as five boroughs were fused into a single, powerful
The first radio
US is given by Nathan B. Stubblefield. His voice was the first to be carried on
the air-waves ("wireless" - without any wires used for the transmission). At
Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, he gave a public exhibition in which he transmitted
his voice to a receiver a mile distant from the transmitter. He kept the details
of the invention secret
until he was issued a
patent (U.S. No. 887,357) and gave another demonstration on 30 May 1902.
He was unable to obtain a
suitable buyer for his invention, thus no distribution, and received little
notice for being the first to have accomplished a voice radio broadcast.*"
US is landed at Honolulu, Hawaii and the first message
telegraphed to President Theodore Roosevelt in Washington. Cable Ship
had laid 2,620 miles of cable since leaving San Francisco,
California, on 14 Dec 1902
The ship had arrived a few days earlier, on 26 Dec 1902, but bad weather held up
the splicing on of the intermediate and shore ends. Public use began on 5 Jan
1898, when Hawaii had been annexed to the U.S., news took a week to arrive by
steamship; now communication took seconds. After Nov 1951, newer communications
superceded this cable, which now lies abandoned on the bottom of the Pacific,
after almost fifty years or service.
Aspirin is made
available for the first time in tablet
form. The pills
were manufactured by Bayer pharmaceuticals in Germany. The medicine
had previously been used in powder form. Salicin, the parent compound of the
salicylate drug family had been isolated from willow bark in 1829. From 1875,
sodium salicylate was used as a commercial pain reliever, despite side effects
such as bleeding of the stomach lining. In 1897, Felix Hoffman, a German chemist
working for Bayer, found a suitable, less acidic medication - acetylsalicylic
acid - marketed by Bayer under the name "Aspirin". It has since become the
biggest selling drug in the world as an analgesic (anti-pain),
anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic (fever-reducing) medication.
been stored and cooled is used for the first time in a blood transfusion
R.A.M.C. The procedure was very successful. Blood transfusions
been made previously, but this demonstrated the value of cooling to store blood.
Until 1913, direct transfusion was the only technique practiced, despite being a
difficult and time-consuming method, requiring trained personnel and was
impractical for as a procedure in sudden emergencies. In the last two years of
World War I, British surgeons benefitted from knowledge derived in the U.S. Use
of blood collected and stored in advance of the need as casualties arrived
facilitated transfusions as needed.
Gregory Charney, "American meteorologist
who, working with John von Neumann, first introduced
electronic computer into weather prediction (1950) and improved understanding of
the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. The entire Oct 1947 issue of the
Journal of Meteorology published his Ph.D. dissertation, (UCLA, 1936) Dynamics
of long waves in a baroclinic westerly current. It emphasized the influence of
"long waves" in the upper atmosphere rather than the existing practice of
emphasis on the polar front. It also simplified analysis of perturbations of
these waves using mathematically rigorous methods that yielded useful physical
interpretation. He helped the U.S. Weather Bureau set up (1954) a numerical
weather prediction unit.
Corneliu Codreanu and his followers in Romania resist attacks by bands of
mutinous Russian soldiers looting and pillaging their countryside. "...charismatic leader of
the Romanian ultra-Nationalist movement in the
period between the two World Wars, The Iron Guard (Garda de
Fier) or The Legion of the Archangel Michael
(also known as the Legionaries, The Legionary Movement or, although never
officially, as The Green Shirts). References to him as just Corneliu Codreanu do
exist, and Zelea is never used as the family name it is: all entries for
Codreanu cite it as if it were a middle name. The Legionaries traditionally
referred to Codreanu as Cãpitanul ("The Captain"), and he held absolute authority over the
organization until his death. Nowadays Codreanu is remembered as a spiritual
leader more than a political one. The Noua Dreaptã, which
claims to be successor of the pre-war Iron Guard, depicts him as an Romanian
1919 Volkishness: Karl Maria Wiligut (Weisthor) is
discharged with the rank of colonel from the Austrian army, after serving almost
40 years. (Roots)
Weimar: The first
DAP Party Headquarters is established in the Sterneckerbrau in Munich. "...This party was the formal forerunner of the NSDAP, and became one of many volkisch
movements that existed in Germany after its defeat in World War I. In order to investigate the DAP, German army intelligence sent a young corporal, Adolf Hitler, to monitor party activities. However, he was impressed by what he saw, and he joined as Member Number 555, although Hitler later claimed to be "Party Member number 7" to make it look like he was a founder. He was, in actual fact, only the 55th member of the DAP but the party began its membership totals from 500 in order to appear larger. He was in fact the 7th member of the DAP's central committee. At this early stage, Hitler brought up the idea of renaming the party, and he proposed the name "Social Revolutionary Party" (4). However, Rudolf Jung insisted that
the party should follow the pattern of Austria's Deutsche
Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei. As a consequence, the DAP was shortly
renamed the NSDAP on February 24, 1920..."
The first US patent
for ink paste is issued to Frank Buckley Cooney of Minneapolis, Minn. (No.
1,479,533). Paste ink was designed to be rendered fluid for use by the addition
of water, so that "a very satisfactory writing fluid is provided free of
suspended matter and other imperfections." Thus ink could be packaged in
collapsible lead vending tube in highly concentrated form. This also had the
benefit of reducing shipping costs. Four fluid ounces of paste would produce one
gallon of ink after dilution, free from the suspended matter associated with
concentrated ink in the form of powders or tablets.
It was manufactured as
Cooney's Ink Paste, from 10 Feb 1923, by the Standard Ink Co in the same
During the early months of this year, Benito Mussolini eliminates his most
important political opponents and establishes a virtual dictatorship by force
and intimidation. He soon begins the process of converting Italy into a
one-party Corporate state.
1926 Prince Michael of Romania is
proclaimed heir to the throne by the Romanian Parliament after his father,
Prince Carol, is deprived of his inheritance.
The first high-rise
in the world
with air-conditioning installed during construction - the Milam Building
- opens in San
Antonio, Texas. The 21-story building has almost 250,000 square feet of floor
air-conditioning was designed by the Carrier Engineering Corporation to provide
300 tons of refrigeration capacity with chilled water, piped to air-handling
fans serving all floors. Smaller buildings such as stores and theatres already
had air conditioning installed, but the high-rise required preparing in advance
the design to incorporate ducts and air-handling and control equipment planned
with the structure. At the time it opened, it was also the tallest brick and
concrete-reinforced structure in the United States.
The Nazi Brown House is officially opened in Munich.
W.A. Harriman & Co. merges with Brown Brothers. Prescott Bush, father of
future President George HW Bush, becomes the managing partner of the new firm:
Brown Brothers Harriman. This firm will subsequently become the largest and most
politically important private banking house in America. The London branch of the
Brown family firm continues to operate under the name -- Brown, Shipley. Note:
During the American Civil War (War of Southern Secession), the Brown family with
offices in the US and London shipped 75% of the South's slave cotton to British
Hypnotist Erik Hanussen, a Jew, predicts Hitler will come to power on January
writes a letter of gratitude to his dear friend, Ernst Roehm.
1934 Holocaust: All Jewish holidays are removed from official German
Soviet Union discontinues food rationing cards.
Wirephoto(tm) by AP
News(R) is invented. It enabled the transmission
photographs by wire to member newspapers. The photo was wrapped around a drum.
The drum was then rotated as a light-sensitive photocell moved over the image
picking up brightness differences. The photocell created voltages that were
amplified and sent by telephone lines to the subscribing newspapers. At the
receiving end, a piece of photographic paper spun around on a cylinder within a
light-tight enclosure. The intensity of a pinpoint of light focused on the paper
varied with the signal being picked up by the originating machine.
The paper was then processed
in a darkroom in the same way as a normal photographic print.*
The Herald Tribune of
New York begins microfilming its current issues from this date, becoming the
first U.S. newspaper to make a current record of its publication.
The previous year the New
York Times had microfilmed its back-issues for the years 1914-27, but had not
yet started processing its current issues in this form.*
1937 Holocaust: The Polish law banning Jewish ritual slaughter
(Shechita) goes into effect.
1939 Holocaust: A decree is published eliminating Jews from the
A Flea Laboratory
opens in San Francisco, California at the University of California's Hooper
Foundation for Medical Research. It was the first of its kind in the US. The
building was a two story concrete structure designed to be flea-tight, and
rodent-tight. Air-conditioning kept the interior at a constant temperature. This
event came a century after fleas first made a name for themselves. The first US
flea circus opened in early Jan 1838, which was billed as an "Extraordinary
Exhibition of the Industrious Fleas.
" Patrons at 187 Broadway,
New York City, for an admission of 50 cents, could attend performances at times
from 11am to 3pm and 5pm to 9pm.*
1940 WW2: A Soviet educational system is imposed on
Poland. Polish subjects as well as Polish students and teachers are phased out.
Before the war, Lwow University was 70% Polish, 15% Ukrainian and 15% Jewish.
Under the Soviets it becomes 3% Polish, 12% Ukrainian and 85%
Franco, quoting directly from the famous forgery 'The Protocols of the Elders of
Zion', officially denounces the Jews and Freemasons.
1941 Holocaust: Another 439 old and sick Jews from the Old
Peoples Home in Kalisz, Poland, are gassed with exhaust fumes in the nearby
War II: German bombers drop
bombs on Ireland, in four counties and the capital, Dublin.
War II: Twenty-six nations
sign the United
Nations Declaration in Washington. The Atlantic Charter and its eight
principles: (1) the renunciation of territorial aggression; (2) territorial
changes only with consent of the peoples concerned; (3) restoration of sovereign
rights and self-government; (4) access to raw materials for all nations; (5)
world economic cooperation; (6) freedom from fear and want; (7) freedom of the
seas; and (8) disarmament of aggressors are also endorsed by the signatories at
the Arcadia Conference. (See August 9, 1941)
WW2: Himmler reports
there are now 25,000 Ukrainian soldiers in the Waffen-SS.
War II: The
Soviet-dominated Lublin Committee declares itself the legitimate government of
It meets with little effective resistance from the local population still
suffering severely under the hardships of war.
War II: Luftwaffe attacks
on airfields in Belgium, Holland and France destroy more than 300 Allied
aircraft. It is the last major Luftwaffe operation of the war.
WW2: German Army Group G
in Alsace begins an offensive in the Sarreguemines area and Eisenhower orders
units of the US Seventh Army to retreat.
1945 Holocaust: Hungarian-Jewish leader, Otto Komoly, is murdered
by Hungarian Fascists.
ENIAC, the first US
computer is finished by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. It was built at the
Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, based on
ideas developed by John Atanasoff of Iowa State College. Though not the first
ever computer, ENIAC is regarded
the first successful, general digital computer. It weighed over 27,000 kg
(60,000 lb), and contained more than 18,000 vacuum tubes. A staff of six
technicians replaced about 2000 of the tubes each month. Many of ENIAC's first
tasks were for military purposes, such as calculating ballistic firing tables
and designing atomic weapons. Since ENIAC was initially not a stored program
machine, it had to be reprogrammed for each task.
The first US motion
picture newsreel in color was taken at the Tournament of Roses and the Rose Bowl
Game, Pasadena, California.
started showing this first color newsreel to theatre audiences on 5 Jan 1948. It
was made using the Cinecolor process.*"
The first pay television
in the US
starts test transmissions to a limited group of subscribers in Chicago, Illinois
for 90 days. The broadcast signal was scrambled, and could be viewed by those
people having the "key signal" sent to them by telephone. The first day's
full-length features, each priced at $1, began in the afternoon with April
Showers with Jack Carson, followed by the Bing Crosby movie Welcome Stranger and
then Homecoming with Clark Gable and Lana Turner. The service, provided by
Zenith Radio Corporation (KS2KSBS), was tested by 300 families chosen from
51,000 applicants. The company sold*
2,000 program views in the first month, yet not enough to sustain
The first color
mobile television units in the US are placed in service by station WNBT of the
National Broadcasting Company (NBC) to cover the Tournament of Roses Parade. Two
units, each three-color capable, with complete audio and video control on board,
were mobilized aboard large motor vans. Each truck was 35-ft long, 8-ft wide and
10.6 ft high. One camera was crane-mounted. A new logo was introduced to
accompany the color broadcasts.
Black and white TV mobile
units were already well established for outdoor events, having begun operation
on 12 Dec 1937 by the W2XBT station of NBC using a microwave link to a tower
transmitter on the Empire State Building.*"
1957 The Salem Witch Trails: Massachusetts formally apologizes for the events
The first US
electric power plant to use hyperbolic-shaped cooling towers is placed in
commercial service at Ashland, Kentucky by the Kentucky Power Company. It was
designed to cool 120,000 gallons of water per minute. The
first unit at Big Sandy Plant opened with a 260-megawatt power capacity. The
location was chosen to be close to the coal mines that fuel it. In 1969, a
second unit opened adding another 800-megawatt of power production." (Source
Effective on this
day, all US cigarette packages begin carrying the health warning: Caution:
Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health. This resulted from landmark
federal legislation enacted in 1965 that required health warnings on cigarette
packages. In 1984, the law was amended to require one of four warning labels
in most cigarette-related advertising (US
, Title 15, Chapter 36, Sec. 1333.).
" Note For Men: Only smoke
the ones that say 'May Complicate Pregnancy,' and pass on the ones that say
'Throat Polyps' and the like.
fluoridation law in the US takes effect in Connecticut, requiring
fluoridation of public water supplies serving 20,000 or more population, to
prevent dental caries. The water fluoridation
1945 when the cities of Newburgh, New York, and Grand Rapids, Michigan, began
adding sodium fluoride to their public water systems. This followed the work
done (1930-1943) by Frederick S. McKay, a Colorado dentist, who related brown
stains (mottling) on his patients’ teeth to low dental caries due to the source
of their drinking water containing high levels of naturally occurring fluoride.
By the early 1940s, H. Trendley Dean had determined the ideal level of fluoride
in drinking water to reduce decay without mottling." (Source
Ex-Nazi Kurt Waldheim of Austria formally takes office as the fourth Secretary General of the United Nations.
There IS an 'n' in Brain: On this day, NBC Television debuts a new abstract capital 'N'-- a corporate symbol to replace the familiar peacock logo after 20 years. The cost of the new NBC logo is estimated to be between $750,000 and $1 million. After much ridicule, it takes two more years before they get the really bad news: Nebraska Public Television went after NBC for copying ITS logo, which it had broadcast for several years. The cost... 35 dollars. NBC paid the costs and the 'N' stayed around for a short time before being replaced by... the peacock. NBC shipped the abstract N to Nebraska Public TV and told them to put it to good use.
On this day, 237,839,000 people live in the United States. The number represents
a birth rate well below the levels of the 1950s and 1960s baby boom, which saw a
record setting 3,690,000 newborns.
The Dishonor List of Banished Words and Phrases: The Doublespeak Award given this day goes to
(the envelope please...) Lake Superior State College for the phrase, "The
patient did not fulfill his wellness potential." Or, in other words... he died.
Congratulations! Only half of these graduates now work for the government. The
other half were N-Ron executives.
US President Bill Clinton recognizes the new Czech and Slovak Republics
(formerly Czechoslovakia) and offered to establish full diplomatic relations. In
an exchange of letters, Czech Prime Minister Klaus and Slovak Prime Minister
Meciar accepted the US offer of full diplomatic relations. Both leaders provided
assurances that the new states would fulfill the obligations and commitments of
the former Czechoslovakia and abide by the principles and provisions of the UN
Charter, the Charter of Paris, the Helsinki Final Act and subsequent CSCE
The last member of
the snail species Partula turgida (the Polynesian Tree Snail) dies
at the London Zoo. A
of the digestive gland is thought to have been responsible for the extinction
of this last individual of the species. Numerous field surveys failed to
find extant populations of this species in the wild (the South Pacific island of
Raiatea in the Society Island chain, about 5000-km south of Hawaii). Residents
of Raiatea began importing
predatory snails from Florida in 1986 to eat another kind of pest snail, but the
predators attacked the native snails. By 1991 they had driven the species to the
brink of extinction. Scientists captured the last known P. turgida individuals
to try to save them through captive breeding.
Member nations of the European Union adopt the "euro" as their common currency.
It was a long road: Anti-Union propaganda in Britain utilized the German
boogyman with the slogan, 'Ein Volk, Ein Reich, Ein Euro.' Note: Eighty percent
of the British who major in History specialize in Nazi Germany.