The Roman Lower Rhine army proclaims its commander, Vitellius, emperor.
Roman Emperor from
April 17 69 to December 22 of the same
year, one of the emperors in the "Year of the
emperors". He was the son of Lucius Vitellius,
had been consul and governor of Syria
Tiberius. Vitellius the
consul in 48, and (perhaps in 60-61) proconsul of Africa, in
capacity he is said to have acquitted himself with credit. At the end of 68 Galba, to the general
astonishment, selected him to command the army of Germania
here Vitellius made himself popular with his subalterns and with the
outrageous prodigality and excessive good nature, which soon proved fatal to
order and discipline. Far from being ambitious or scheming, he was lazy and
self-indulgent, fond of eating and
Spanish forces under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella,
from the Moors. "...The kingdom
of Granada linked the commercial routes from Europe to Africa crossing
Sahara. The nation
shrunk, and by 1492, it was only a small
the southeastern coast. This was the most religiously homogenous area in the
peninsula, in fact, Granada has been described as the first Muslim nation to
almost completely Muslim. Those Christians who did not convert to Islam had
deported or escaped to Christian countries in North and Africa. The only
religious minority was a small Jewish community. On the 2nd of January 1492, the Moors surrendered to the
and the kingdom was incorporated into Castile. The fall of
holds an important place among the many significant events that mark the
half of the 15th century. It
after an existence of eight hundred years, the Islamic rule in the Iberian
thus formed an offset to the progress of the Muslim power in Eastern Europe and
loss to the Christian world of Constantinople. It
advanced Spain to the first
rank among the
Tsar Ivan the Terrible's march to Novgorod begins. "Ivan IV Vasilyevich,
The Terrible (1530-84), grand duke of Moscow (1533-47) and czar of Russia
(1547-84), one of the creators of the Russian state. He was the first
ruler to be formally crowned as czar. The first 13 years of Ivan's reign
constitute one of the greatest periods of internal reform, external
and centralization of state power in the history of Russia. Ivan's reign
1560 is remarkable more for the czar's repeated displays of erratic behavior
wanton brutality than for his statesmanship. He surrounded himself with a
group of noblemen, whom he allowed to exercise despotic power over his
domain. In 1570 he ravaged the town of Novgorod and ordered the slaying of
thousands of its inhabitants because they had been reported, on dubious
authority, to be conspiring against him. Ten years later Ivan brought
tragedy upon himself when, in a fit of anger, he struck and killed his
and favorite son."
Cardinal Richelieu establishes the Academie Francaise to maintain the purity
the French language.
Bacon, leader of Bacon's Rebellion, Virginia (1676).
1729 Birth: Johann
Titius, "Prussian astronomer, physicist, and
biologist whose formula (1766) expressing the distances between the planets
the Sun was confirmed
by J.E. Bode in 1772, when it was called Bode's Law. Titius suggested that
mean distances of the planets from the sun very nearly fit a simple
of A=4+(3x2n) giving the series 4, 7, 10, 16, 28, *, 52, 100,
corresponding to the relative distance of the six known planets, up to
and an unassigned value (*) between Mars and Jupiter. Olbers searched for a
planetary object at this empty position, thus discovering the asteroid belt.
However, since the discovery of Neptune, which did not fit the pattern, the
"law" is regarded as a coincidence with no scientific significance."
Birth: Philip Freneau, the 'Poet of the American Revolution': The
Clive of India recaptures Calcutta after it had been seized by the Nawab of
Bengal who used the "Black Hole" to imprison British captives.
Birth: Charles Hatchett, "English chemist who discovered the element
niobium, which he called columbium (1801). He found it while analyzing a
of columbite from the collection of the British Museum in London, where he
worked. The columbite was a black rock found in New England by Connecticut's
first governor, JohnWinthrop (1606-1676) who enjoyed collecting minerals.
grandson had sent the specimen decades earlier to Sir Hans Sloane, who gave
to the museum. Columbite is a complex mineral, and Hatchett was able to
but not isolate the new element. Forty years later a German chemist,
Rose, rediscovered the metal and named it niobium,
English painter Sir Joshua Reynolds becomes the first president of the Royal
Academy, which opens on this day.
Birth: Christian D.
Rauch, German sculptor.
Georgia votes to ratify the US Constitution, becoming the fourth state in
modern United States. Named after King George II, Georgia was first settled
Europeans in 1733, when a group of British debtors led by English
James E. Oglethorpe travelled up the Savannah River and established
first permanent settlement, the town of Savannah. In 1742, as part of a
conflict between Spain and Great Britain, Oglethorpe defeated the Spanish on
Simons Island in Georgia, effectively ending Spanish claims to the territory
Georgia. Georgia, rich in export potential, was one of the most prosperous
British colonies in America and was thus slower than the other colonies to
resent the oppressive acts of the Parliament and King George III. However,
the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Georgian Patriots had organized, and
delegates were sent to the Second Continental Congress. During the war,
was heavily divided between Loyalists and Patriots, and the British soon
most of the state. Savannah served as a key British base for their southern
operations, and the grim four-year British occupation won many Georgians
the Patriot cause. On this day, Georgia becomes the first southern state to
ratify the US Constitution. Nicknamed the Peach State. Georgia is also
to as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, its capital and largest city
been the center of commerce, communication, politics and transportation for
Southeastern region of the US; and every other street is named 'Peach'
or other. Like the rest of the 50 states, Georgia has a state bird: the
thrasher; a state flower: for some reason it's not the peach blossom, but
Cherokee rose; a state tree: the live oak; a state song: Georgia on My Mind;
an official state motto: Wisdom, Justice and Moderation.
Death: Joseph A
Feuchtmayer (Feichtmayer), German rococo sculptor.
The Free black community of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania petitions the US
to abolish slavery.
1803 Birth: Charles
Thurber, "American inventor of the chirographer,
an early form of typewriter, patented in 1843. Born in E. Brookfield, Mass.,
formed Allen & Thurber (Worcester, Mass) with his brother in law, Ethan
Allen to manufacture firearms. On Thurber's chirographer, the type was
on a rotating cylindrical drum. As Scientific American described
it, "the paper was secured to the drum, and was brought into the proper
under the type bar guide. The type wheel was revolved until the desired
came over the guide. The key was then forced down with the finger, and the
character was printed." Thurber managed to produce some very neat
with his chirographer, but the machine was far too slow to substitute for
US Senator Timothy Pickering becomes the first US Senator to
censured; he had revealed confidential documents communicated by the
of the United States.
1813 A special Commission opens
York, England to put on trial 66 persons for
offenses connected with Luddism. Within days, seventeen of them had been
executed on the scaffold. Taking their name from (perhaps mythical) Ned
vowed to destroy the factory mechanization they blamed for their
Riots began in 1812, and spread north from Nottingham where half of the
population were receiving parish relief. Falling prices for goods, bad
increasing prices for food, wages at starvation level, costs of war and lost
foreign markets contributed to the economic distress of the working class.
thousand looms were broken up in Nottingham, and a law was passed making
destruction of machinery a capital offence."
Birth: Rudolph J.
E. Clausius, "Rudolf (Julius Emanuel) Clausius was a German mathematical physicist
who was one of the founders of thermodynamics. In 1850, he stated the second
of thermodynamics. As a theoretical physicist, he also researched in
physics and electricty. In his published work in thermodynamics (1865) he
the First and Second laws of thermodynamics in the following form: (1) The
energy of the universe is constant. (2) The entropy of the universe tends to
maximum. In all Clausius wrote eight important papers on the topic. He
Sadi Carnot's principle of the efficiency of heat engines. The
Clausius-Clapeyron equation expresses the relation between the pressure and
temperature at which two phases of a substance are in equilibrium."
Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper, begins publishing in Boston.
Pioneering photographer Frenchman Louis Daguerre takes the first ever
of the moon.
Opper, cartoonist; Willie and His Papa, Maud the Mule, Alphonse &
See also: 1883, 1904, 1914.
Birth: William C.
Mills, "American museum curator
who excavated Indian
Ohio, especially the Adena Mound (1901), a large earthen Indian burial
near Chillicothe. Dating from about 50 BC, this site now represents the type
site for the study of the North American Adena
period. Mills also made the definitive study (publ.1921) of Ohio's Flint Ridge "Great
Quarry" for the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society of which he was
curator and librarian 1898-1928."
US Civil War: Colonel
Charles Stone is put in charge of organizing the DC militia.
US Civil War: South
Carolina seizes inactive Fort Johnson in Charleston Harbor.
US Civil War: The USS
Brooklyn is readied at Norfolk to aid Fort Sumter.
Construction begins on the Brooklyn Bridge.
Young, the 71-year-old leader of the Mormon Church, is arrested on a
of bigamy. With 25 wives, old Brigham probably got more sleep that night in
than he was likely to get at home.
1872 Birth: Albert C.
Barnes, "Dr. Albert C(oombs) Barnes was an American chemist who invented the
antiseptic Argyrol (1902). This is a silver-protein compound used in aqueous
solution as a topical antiseptic. Believing in the social theories of
philosophers such as John Dewey, Barnes felt he could better the lives of
fellow citizens. He applied his own ideas in his own factories. He scheduled
workers on 8-hour shifts 6 hours on the production line, followed by 2
hours of lectures on esthetics and art. He became a noted art collector,
collection is now in the Barnes Foundation galleries in Merion, outside
Philadelphia. Barnes' theories of art appreciation continue to be taught at
Barnes Foundation today. Dr. Barnes died in a car crash in 1951."
Pannekoek, "...Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist. He is
sometimes known as Antonie Pannekoek. Pannekoek studied mathematics and science in Leiden from 1891. Even before he went to
college he was interested in astronomy and studied the
variability of Polaris. He published his
article, On the Necessity of Further Researches on the Milky Way, as a
Some years after he had finished his study he started work at the Leidse
Sterrewacht (Leiden observatory), where he wrote his thesis. After reading
Equality, Pannekoek became a convinced socialist and started
Karl Marx's theories.
Pannekoek became a well-known Marxist writer, writing for both Dutch and
magazines. Dissatisfaction with his job at the observatory led him to move
Berlin, where he became a lecturer at the school funded by the Social
Democratic Party of Germany. His radical opinions soon got him in
Breguet, French aviation pioneer.
Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil is organized as a trust.
Death: Little 15
month old Ida Hitler, of diphtheria, leaving Klara Hitler, recently a mother
three, childless with two step-children to care for.
1889 Birth: Roger
"American chemist and teacher
joined the faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana in 1916, which he
converted into the
centre of organic chemistry in the U.S. and forged links with
notably with Du Pont. Adams worked out the chemical composition of various
natural substances, including chaulmoogra oil (which is used in treating
leprosy), gossypol (a toxic cottonseed pigment), marijuana, and many
He also worked in stereochemistry and with platinum catalysts and the
of medicinal compounds. His name is associated with chemical warfare agent
(diphenylamine chloroarsine) and the Adams catalyst
(platinum oxide or palladium oxide, used for the hydrogenation of carbon-
The first US commemoratives and the first US stamp to picture a woman are
After the Battle at Doornkop, South Africa, Leander Starr Jameson surrenders
the Boers after his attempted raid on Johannesburg.
President Theodore Roosevelt closes a post office in Indianola, Mississippi,
refusing to accept a black postmistress.
US Marines are sent to Santo Domingo to aid the government against rebel
The Russians surrender to the Japanese after the battle of Port
Elara, a satellite of Jupiter, is discovered by Perrine.
Guttuso, Italian painter.
Bolsheviks threaten to re-enter the war unless Germany returns occupied
Asimov, "American author and
biochemist, who was a prolific writer
of science fiction and of science books for the layperson. Born in
Russia, he emigrated with his family to New York City at age three. He
Columbia University at the age of 15 and at 18 sold his first story to
Stories. After earning a Ph.D., he taught biochemistry at Boston University
School of Medicine after 1949. By 18 Mar 1941, Asimov had already written 31
stories, sold 17, and 14 had been published. As an author, lecturer, and
broadcaster of astonishing range, he is most admired as a popularizer of
(The Collapsing Universe; 1977) and a science fiction writer (I,
coined the term "robotics." He published
about 500 volumes."
Birth: John Hope
von Bethmann-Hollweg, German chancellor/PM (Prussia); referred to the
international treaty guaranteeing Belgian neutrality as "a scrap of
Rosenberg writes 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Jewish World
Policy'. It is reprinted three times within a year.
surprise attack by the Ku Klux Klan on a black residential area of Rosewood,
Florida leaves 8 dead. Court ordered compensation will be awarded in 1995.
cripples the German economy. In 1918, the exchange rate, four marks to the
dollar in 1918, is now more than 7,000 to the dollar.
Weimar: Rudolf Hess and several other
Nazis are released from Landsberg prison and quickly
rejoin Hitler. (Missing Years)
Holocaust: The Nazi
Party obtains rights to Gottfried zur Beek's translation of The Protocols of
Elders of Zion.
The US and Canada agree on joint action to preserve Niagara
Heck, comic artist.
1934 Holocaust: A German law is passed for sterilization of
1935 The Zurich city council requests the Swiss
government to prohibit anti-Jewish demonstrations and publication of
1941 Birth: Donald B.
"American research physicist, who with his colleagues at Corning
Dr. Robert Maurer and Dr. Peter Schultz, invented fused silica optical
- optical fiber. This was a breakthrough
revolution in telecommunications, capable of carrying 65,000 times more
information than conventional copper wire. In 1970, Maurer, Keck, and
solved a problem that had previously stumped scientists around the world.
designed and produced the first optical fiber with optical losses low enough
wide use in telecommunications. The light loss was limited to 20 decibels
kilometer (at least one percent of the light entering a fiber remains after
traveling one kilometer)."
WW2: For the
second and final time, German bombs fall on Ireland.
than 10,000 Jews from Holland, Belgium, Berlin, and The resienstadt are
to Auschwitz. The last Dutch transport in January contains 869 invalids and
children; all are gassed on arrival.
WW2: Marshal Antonescu
meets with Hitler and reconciles their differences concerning the Romanian
failures and the disaster at Stalingrad.
forces take Manila and the naval base of Cavite in the Philippines.
WW2: 28 nations,
at war with Axis, pledge no separate peace.
begin a withdrawal from the Caucasus.
Holocaust: Early in 1944, Gregor Schwartz-Bostunitsch and his private
library of 40,000 anti-Jewish and conspiracy theory books, the heart of a
proposed "institute for conspiracy study" are evacuated from Berlin to
Gneisenau at Erdmannsdorf (Riesengebirge) in Silesia for safekeeping. Later
the year, Bostunitsch is promoted to SS-Standartenfuehrer (colonel) upon the
personal recommendation of Heinrich Himmler. (Roots)
WW2: The US Third
Army in the Ardennes takes Bonnerue, Hubertmont and Remagne.
WW2: Hitler turns
down requests from Generals Model and Manteuffel to withdraw from west of
WW2: Admiral Sir
Bertram Ramsay, Naval Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces in Europe, is
in an air accident on his way to meet with General
WW2: In Budapest,
the surrounded German garrison goes on the offensive, counterattacking the
Proclamation No. 21 goes into effect allowing Japanese-American "evacuees"
the West Coast to return to their homes.
Heebink, comic artist.
The first lunar space shot, the unmanned (Mechta) Luna I, is launched by the
Soviet Union. It will pass within 4,600 miles of the moon before moving on
Rebel leader Fidel Castro, proclaims a new government for Cuba as it is
that all effective opposition has collapsed. Cuban dictator Fulgencio
flees the country.
Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts announces his candidacy for the
Democratic presidential nomination.
John Reynolds calculates the age of the solar system at 4,950,000,000 years.
The Nam: The Viet
Cong down five US helicopters in the Mekong Delta, 50 die.
Ayub Khan is elected President of Pakistan.
The Nam: American GIs
move into the Mekong Delta for the first time.
1966 The first Jewish child is born in
Spain since the 1492 expulsion.
The US population is recorded at 205,052,174.
"His (Rudolf Hess's) life sentence by the IMT (International Military
at Nuremberg was, compared with others, by no means a lenient one. I suspect
that all of us on the Western side took it for granted that it would be
to the same sort of commutation recognized in civilized systems of criminal
justice and would not literally be for life. That he should continue to be
imprisoned now seems to me an affront to all notions of justice." Statement
this day by Lord Shawcross, British Chief Prosecutor at
team of Israeli scholars announce the discovery in Jerusalem of a 2,000-
skeleton of a crucified male. Found in a cave-tomb, it is the first direct
physical evidence of the well-documented Roman method of
Mariner 9 begins mapping Mars.
US President Richard M. Nixon signs a bill requiring states to lower the
speed limit to 55 MPH. The law is meant to conserve gasoline supplies during
embargo imposed by Arab oil-producing countries. The embargo is lifted on
13, 1974, but the speed limit lid stays on until 1987.
1975 The US Department of Interior
designates the grizzly bear a threatened species.
1975 Kenneth C. Brugger discovers
long-unknown winter destination of the monarch butterfly in the mountains of
Mexico. From 1937, for 38 years, Canadian zoologist Freud Urquhart patiently
investigated to establish the route and destination of the insects. Using
on the wings of some butterflies, he followed their migration trails to
territory. Brugger, one of Urquhart's helpers, after a long period of
in the center of Mexico, found the first butterfly refuge.
territory of only 200 square meters, there are around 20 million
The area was cold and covered with oyamel trees and pine trees, a few
from rural towns."
President Jimmy Carter asks the US Senate to delay the arms treaty
in response to the Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan.
Troops of Chad President Habré conquer the Fada oasis.
The publishers of Enid Blyton's Noddy books bow to pressure groups and agree
expunge 'racism' by changing Gollywogs to gnomes.
Canadian Prime Minister Mulroney and President Reagan sign a Canada-US free
More than 70 people are killed and at least 670 are injured after two days
factional battles in the Afghan capital Kabul.
1995 The most distant galaxy yet
discovered is found by scientists using the Keck telescope in Hawaii. It is
estimated to be 15 billion light years away and was named 8C
Zacarias Moussaoui, the alleged '20th hijacker' of 11 September, refuses to
enter a plea when charged with six counts of conspiring to attack the