History: January 3

January 3

1521 German Reformer Martin Luther, 38, is excommunicated by Pope Leo X for challenging Catholic Church doctrine. Luther soon after begins translating Die Bibel into the German language.

1624 Birth: William Tucker this day becomes the 1st Black child born in America.

1777 US Revolutionary War: Washington defeats the British at The Battle of Princeton, New Jersey. Commented Fredrich The Great of Prussia: "The achievements of Washington and his little band of compatriots between the 25th of December and the 4th of January, a space of ten days, were the most brilliant of any recorded in the annals of military achievements." In 1809, the distinguished Prussian general-historian Wilheim von Buelow, in his book 'The Spirit Of The Modern System of War', wrote: "The maneuvers of the American General at Trenton and Princeton were masterpieces. They may be deemed models for the conduct of a general supporting a defensive war against a superior enemy." This would not be the last time that German/Prussian militarists would learn important lessons from the conduct of American arms.

1833 Britain seizes control of Falkland Islands in South Atlantic.

1868 The Meiji Restoration re-establishes the authority of Japan's emperor and heralds the fall of the military rulers known as "shoguns".

1876 Birth: Wilhelm Pieck, co-founder German Communist Party/DDR President (1949-60).

1892 Birth: John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, philologist/writer (Lord of Rings), in South Africa.

Alois Hitler

1902 Death: Alois Hitler, in Leonding while drinking his daily glass of wine. No headstone is erected on his grave by the family, even though his wife, Klara, has received a considerable inheritance and a government pension. Josef Mayrhofer, the mayor of Leonding, is appointed as Adolf and Paula's guardian.


1910 The Social Democratic Congress in Germany demands universal suffrage.

1915 WW1: The Turks plan a wide envelopment of the Russians at the Battle of Sarikamis In the Caucasus between Russia and Turkey. The Russians counterattack, smashing the Turkish army.

1922 Birth: Morten Nielsen, Denmark, poet/resistance fighter.

1925 Mussolini dissolves Italian parliament: The Italian Fascist State is officially proclaimed with Mussolini as Il Duce, or the "Leader."

1930 Weimar: The second conference on Germany's war reparations begins at the Hague, in the Netherlands.

1933 Weimar: Hanussen's prediction is widely ridiculed by Hitler's enemies and the German press. (See Jan 1, 30)


1933 Death: Wilhelm Cuno, German Reich's chancellor (1922-23), at 56. A businessman, he headed a nonpartisan conservative ministry. His attempt to establish a moratorium on German reparations payments and his program of passive resistance to French occupation of the Ruhr failed. During his term of office inflation reached huge proportions.

1934 Church and Reich: At Barmen-Gemarke, in Germany, 320 pastors of the German Confessing Church meet to draw up a theological statement opposing the Nazi German Nationalist Church. Led by Karl Barth and Martin Niem”ller, the gathering led to the formula afterward known as the Barmen Declaration.

1935 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) requests the assistance of the League of Nations in its conflict with Italy.

1940 WW2: German submarine U-25 secretly moors next to the German merchant ship Thalia in a Spanish port for refueling and restocking. This is the first time for a German submarine to do so at a Spanish port during the war.

1941 WW2: Canada and the US acquire air bases in Newfoundland (99 year lease).


1943 Holocaust: A Jewish resistance group in Czestochowa, Poland, kills 25 Germans. The SS shoots 250 old people and children in reprisal.

1943 Stalingrad: Rokossovsky offers Paulus surrender terms, which are rejected. (Messenger)

1944 WW2: The Red Army reaches the former Polish border.

1945 WW2I: Desperate German attacks in the Ardennes fail to cut the Allied corridor to Bastogne.

1945 WW2: German attacks in Alsace continue to force the US Seventh Army to retreat.

1945 WW2: The Dutch and Belgian governments sign a mutual agreement for repatriation of incarcerated civilians.

1946 Death: Karl Maria Weisthor (Wiligut), in Arolsen, Germany. His body is found by Elsa Baltrush, his SS-assigned housekeeper; she had been a member of Himmler's personal staff until she was appointed as Weisthor's housekeeper and traveling companion after his retirement from SS active duty in August 1939. (Mund; Roots)


1946 Death: William Joyce (Lord Haw Haw), is hanged in Britain for treason.

1946 Great Britain, Canada, and the United States make public disclosures about their chemical and biological warfare efforts during the war.

1947 In Trenton, New Jersey, Al Herrin, the handyman who claimed he had no bed to sleep in because he had never slept a wink in his life, dies at age 92. Doctors say there is evidence that he had gone several months without sleep and they confirm that if he went that long, it could well be that he was awake his entire life.

1954 The US government announces that over 3,000 persons designated security risks had been discharged from federal employment between June of 1953 and October of 1954, a period regarded as the height of "McCarthyism" in America.

1959 Seward's Icebox: Alaska is admitted as the 49th US state.

1959 Fidel Castro takes command of the Cuban army.

1961 US breaks diplomatic relations with Cuba.

1962 Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro: He's in good company (see above).

1967 Death: Jack Ruby, the mob-connected assassin who killed the mob-connected assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, at 55. Note: It is almost certain that Fidel Castro had nothing to do with it.

1972 Death: Frans Masereel, Flemish WWII resistance fighter (Le Soleil), dies at 82.












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