History: January 15

January 15

0069 Death: Servius Sulpicius Galba, 6th emperor of Rome (68-69), in succession to Nero; assassinated by the Praetorian guard in the Forum Rome, at 70.

0946 Caliph al-Mustaqfi is blinded and ousted.

1346 Emperor Louis IV of Bavaria gives Holland/Zealand to his wife Margaretha.

1432 Birth: Afonso V 'the African' king of Portugal (1438-1481).

1507 Birth: Johann Oporinus (Herbster), Swiss book publisher.

1535 In England, the energetic Henry VIII declares himself Supreme Head of the Church under the Act of Supremacy.

1552 The Treaty of Chambord is signed by Henry II of France and several German princes including Maurice of Saxony who cedes Metz, Toul and Verdun to France.

1559 Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn is crowned at Westminster Abbey as Elizabeth I.

1582 The peace of Jam-Zapolski is signed between Russia and Poland with Russia ceding Livonia and Estonia to Poland, and in so doing losing its access to the Baltic.

1586 Battle at Boxum: Spanish troops under Tassis beat the state army.

1624 Riots flare in Mexico when it is announced that all churches are to be closed.

1639 Governor William Kieft purchases part of Long Island from some Indians who happened to be around, on behalf of New Netherlands.

1680 French explorer Sieur de la Salle founds Fort Crevecoeur.

1684 Death: Caspar Netscher, Dutch portrait painter, at about 48.

1697 Salem Witch Trials: The citizens of Massachusetts spend a day of fasting and repentance for their roles in the 1692 Salem Witch Trials. Judge Samuel Sewall (above), who had presided over many of those 20 capital judgments, publishes a written confession acknowledging his own 'blame and shame'.

1716 Birth: Philip Livingston, merchant, signatory to the Declaration of Independence. "Philip Livingston was born in 1716 in Albany, New York. His family was quite wealthy and he had the luxury of a Yale education. In 1737 he became involved with the import business in New York City and gradually build up a large fortune of his own. A politically active member of his community, Livingston came out as a strong supporter of political and religious freedom. He served on the colonial legislature from 1759 until 1769, and defended the Whigs in their struggles with the Royal Governor concerning issues such as the Stamp Act. In 1774 Livingston became involved with the Committee of Fifty-One, the group responsible for choosing New York City’s delegates to the Continental Congress. In 1775 he was elected to the Committee of One Hundred which was temporarily responsible for governing New York City. Livingston attended the Continental Congress from 1774 until 1778. He served on a wide range of committees while there, including those dealing with commercial, military, and Indian matters. He died in 1778 when he was sixty-two years old, and was laid to rest in York, Pennsylvania’s Prospect Hill Cemetery."

1759 In London, the British Museum has its grand opening, at Montague House, Bloomsbury, London.

1762 Fraunces Tavern opens in New York City, NY. "...Much of the Revolutionary history of New York revolved around Fraunces Tavern. It was one of the meeting places of the Sons of Liberty in the prewar years. It had something of an odd beginning for what would become a patriot shrine. It was built as a mansion home by Stephen De Lancey, of the prominent merchant family who would eventually lead the loyalist faction in provincial politics in the pre-revolution years. During the tea crisis of 1765, a British captain who tried to bring tea into New York was forced to give an apology to the public at Fraunces Tavern. The patriots, dressed as Indians as had the participants in the earlier Tea Party in Boston, then dumped his tea into the harbor. In August of 1775, Americans took possession of cannons from the Battery at the tip of Manhattan and exchanged fire with a boatload of British soldiers. They retaliated by firing a 32-gun broadside on the city, sending a cannon ball through the roof of Fraunces Tavern. When the war was won and the Americans had reoccupied the city, it was at Fraunces Tavern that hosted Washington and his officers in a victory banquet. On Dec. 4, 1783, Washington was again at Fraunces Tavern to say farewell to his officers in the Long Room. Saving America from the fate of many republics that turned quickly to military dictatorship, Washington quickly resigned his post and returned to civilian life. Because his actions were in keeping with the example of Cincinnati, the Roman general who returned to his plow after achieving victory, his officers created the Society of the Cincinnati, which has ties to the organization that still owns the building. After the war, the tavern housed some offices of the Continental Congress as the country struggled under the Articles of Confederation. With the establishment of the Constitution and the inauguration of Washington as president in 1789, Fraunces Tavern became..."

1777 US Revolutionary War: Vermont declares its independence from Britain and establishes a republic, which lasts until the state joins the Union in 1791.

1780 US Revolutionary War: The US Continental Congress establishes the court of appeals.

1790 The Bounty: Fletcher Christian and eight fellow sailors land on the remote Pitcairn Island in the Pacific after their famous mutiny.

1797 The first top hat is worn by its inventor John Etherington of London. It causes a bit of a stir and he ends up in court, with a £50 fine for disturbing the peace.

1798 Birth: Thomas Crofton Croker, Irish story teller.

1811 In a secret session, the US Congress makes plans to annex Spanish East Florida.

1812 Birth: Peter C. Asbjírnsen, Norwegian fairy tale writer.

1823 Birth: Mathew Brady, American Civil War photographer. See also 1865.

1826 Birth: Mikhail Saltykov, in Spas-Ugol, Russia, radical novelist, satirist; Family of Noblemen.

1831 The first US-built locomotive to pull a passenger train makes its first run as Mr & Mrs Pierson of Charleston, South Carolina make the first US railroad honeymoon trip.

1833 The HMS Beagle anchors at Goeree, Tierra del Fuego.

1844 The University of Notre Dame is chartered under Roman Catholic auspices in Indiana.

1850 Birth: Sonya Kurtovsky, in Kovalevsky, Russia, mathematician.

1851 General Arista replaces Mexican President Herrera.

1858 Birth: Giovanni Segantini, in Italy, painter.

1861 The steam elevator is patented by Elisha Otis.

1862 US Civil War: In St Louis, Captain Andrew H Foote accepts, on the behalf of his government, delivery of the first ironclad naval vessels, the Benton and the Essex.

1863 Birth: Adolph Goldschmidt, German historian.

1863 The Boston Morning Journal becomes the first paper in America to be published on wood pulp paper.

1865 US Civil War: Union troops capture Fort Fisher, North Carolina.

1866 Birth: Nathan Soderblom, Lutheran archbishop, internationalist; Nobel, 1930.

1868 Birth: Noach Zjordanija, veterinarian, Georgian premier 1918-21.

1870 Birth: Johan Peter Koch, Danish officer, explorer of Greenland.

1870 The first recorded use of a donkey to represent the Democratic Party appears in Harper's Weekly. Drawn by political illustrator Thomas Nast, the cartoon is entitled 'A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion'. The jackass (donkey) is tagged 'Copperhead Papers', referring to the Democrat-dominated newspapers of the South, and the dead lion represents the late Edwin McMasters Stanton, President Abraham Lincoln's secretary of war during the final three years of the Civil War. In the background is an eagle perched on a rock, representing the postwar federal domination in the South, and in the far background is the US Capitol.

Four years later, Nast will originate the use of an elephant to symbolize the Republican Party in a Harper's Weekly cartoon entitled 'The Third-Term Panic.' The cartoon reefers to the disparaging response by The New York Herald to the possibility that Republican President Ulysses S. Grant might seek a third-term. The New York Herald is depicted as a donkey wearing lion's skin labeled 'Caesarism.' This bogus lion is frightening several timid animals identified with the names of opposing newspapers, such as The New York Times and The New York Tribune, while a berserk elephant, labeled 'Republican vote,' is tottering above a chasm labeled 'Chaos' as it tosses to the right and the left the few remaining platform planks holding its weight. The caption of the cartoon reads: An Ass having put on the Lion's skin, roamed about the Forest, and amused himself by frightening all the foolish Animals he met with in his wanderings. Nast's influence on the art of political cartooning is profound.

1870 Birth: Pierre S. DuPont, humanitarian, industrialist; will simultaneously be Chairman of the Board of the DuPont Company and a board member of General Motors Corp.

1873 Birth: Max Adler, Austria sociologist, socialist theorist.

1882 Birth: Florian Znaniecki, Polish/US sociologist, writer; Polish Peasant in Europe.

1893 Birth: Dragisa Cvetkovic, Serbian premiere of Yugoslavia, 1939-41.

1894 Birth: Edmond Rubbens, Belgian attorney, minister of colonization.

1895 The French fleet reaches Majunga, Madagascar.

1900 Birth: Cesar Domela, Dutch painter.

1902 Birth: Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Faisal al-Saud, king of Saudi Arabia.

1907 The 3-element vacuum tube is patented by Dr Lee de Forest.

1908 Birth: Physicist Edward Teller, 'father of the hydrogen bomb.'

1910 The status and name of the French Congo is changed to French Equatorial Africa.

1912 The first aerial propaganda leaflets to be dropped by plane are used during the Italo-Turkish war. Addressed to the Arabs of Tripolitania, they offer a gold medal and sack of wheat to every man who surrenders.

1912 The first sickness benefit, unemployment benefit and maternity benefit are introduced in Britain.

1913 The first telephone line between Berlin and New York is inaugurated.

1914 Birth: Lord Dacre of Glanton, British historian.

1915 Japan claims economic control of China.

1918 Birth: Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt (1954-1970).

1919 A two million gallons of molasses 'tidal wave' spills in Boston, Massachusetts. 21 people are drowned.

1919 Pianist and statesman Ignace Paderewski becomes the first premier of Poland.

1919 Semana Tragica, or 'Tragic Week' begins in Buenos Aires.

1919 Weimar: A coup launched on January 10th by German Spartacust revolutionaries in Berlin is suppressed by nationalist paramilitary units. "...The following editorial is the last known piece of writing by Rosa Luxemburg. It was written just after the Spartacus uprising was crushed by the German government and in the hours prior to the arrest and murder of her and Karl Liebknecht by the Friekorps: "Order prevails in Berlin!" So proclaims the bourgeois press triumphantly, so proclaim Ebert and Noske, and the officers of the "victorious troops," who are being cheered by the petty-bourgeois mob in Berlin waving handkerchiefs and shouting "Hurrah!" The glory and honor of German arms have been vindicated before world history. Those who were routed in Flanders and the Argonne have restored their reputation with a brilliant victory -- over three hundred "Spartacists" in the Vorwarts building. The days when glorious German troops first crossed into Belgium, and the days of General von Emmich, the conqueror of Liege, pale before the exploits of Reinhardt and Co. in the streets of Berlin. The governments rampaging troops massacred the mediators who had tried to negotiate the surrender of the Vorwarts building, using their rifle butts to beat them beyond recognition. Prisoners who were lined up against the wall and butchered so violently that skull and brain tissue splattered everywhere. In the sight of glorious deeds such as those, who would remember the ignominious defeat at the hands of the French, British, and Americans? Now "Spartacus" is the enemy, Berlin is the place where our officers can savor triumph, and Noske, "the worker," is the general who can lead victories where Ludendorff failed. Who is not reminded of that drunken celebration by the "law and order" mob in Paris, that Bacchanal of the bourgeoisie celebrated over the corpses of the Communards? That same bourgeoisie who had just shamefully capitulated to the Prussians and abandoned the capital to the invading enemy, taking to their heels like abject cowards. Oh, how the manly courage of those darling sons of the bourgeoisie, of the "golden youth," and of the officer corps flared back to life against the poorly armed, starving Parisian proletariat and their defenseless women and children. How these courageous sons of Mars, who had buckled before the foreign enemy, raged with bestial cruelty against defenseless people, prisoners, and the fallen. "Order prevails in Warsaw!" "Order prevails in Paris!" "Order prevails in Berlin!" Every half-century that is what the bulletins from the guardians of "order" proclaim from one center of the world-historic struggle to the next. And the jubilant "victors" fail to notice that any "order" that needs to be regularly maintained through bloody slaughter heads inexorably toward its historic destiny; its own demise..."

1919 Weimar: German socialist rebels Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg are murdered after an abortive Spartacus uprising in Berlin. Liebknecht is shot in the back while in custody, and Luxemburg's body is later found in the Landwehr Canal.

1920 The Dry Law goes into effect in the United States, making the selling liquor and beer illegal.

1920 The United States approves a $150 million loan to Poland, Austria and Armenia to aid in their war with the Russian communists.

1922 Birth: Franz Fehmann, writer.

1922 Death: John Kirk Barry, doctor, explorer, David Livingstone's companion, at 89.

1923 Lithuania seizes and annexes the country of Memel.

1929 Birth: Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Junior, in Atlanta. "...He was the second oldest child of Alberta Williams King and Martin Luther King. He had an older sister, Christine, and a younger brother, A. D. The young Martin was usually called M. L. His father was pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. One of Martin's grandfathers, A. D. Williams, also had been pastor there. In high school, Martin did so well that he skipped both the 9th and 12th grades. At the age of 15, he entered Morehouse College in Atlanta. King became an admirer of Benjamin E. Mays, Morehouse's president and a well-known scholar of black religion. Under Mays's influence, King decided to become a minister. King was ordained just before he graduated from Morehouse in 1948. He entered Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, to earn a divinity degree. King then went to graduate school at Boston University, where he got a Ph.D. degree in theology in 1955. In Boston, he met Coretta Scott of Marion, Alabama, a music student. They were married in 1953. The Kings had four children—Yolanda, Dexter, Martin, and Bernice. In 1954, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. King's civil rights activities began with a protest of Montgomery's segregated bus system in 1955. That year, a black passenger named Rosa Parks was arrested for disobeying a city law requiring that blacks give up their seats on buses when white people wanted to sit in their seats or in the same row. Black leaders in Montgomery urged blacks to boycott (refuse to use) the city's buses. The leaders formed an organization to run the boycott, and asked King to serve as president.

In his first speech as leader of the boycott, King told his black colleagues: "First and foremost, we are American citizens. ... We are not here advocating violence. ... The only weapon that we have ... is the weapon of protest. ... The great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right." Terrorists bombed King's home, but King continued to insist on nonviolent protests..."

1929 The US Senate ratifies the Kellogg-Briand pact to outlaw war.

1930 Weimar: Communist riots in German industrial centers occur on account of two million unemployed.

1932 Weimar: Approximately six million unemployed in Germany.

1933 Weimar: As Goebells, Goering, Frick and others pound their message into the voters, the Nazis let out all the stops in the election in the small (175,000 population) German State of Lippe-Detmold. Hitler himself speaks 17 times in 11 days and the results will be good enough to strengthen Hitler's position in the struggle for power mediated by von Papen.

1934 Holocaust: An anti-Semitic racial exhibition opens in Munich.

1934 Holocaust: Goering orders the Gestapo to arrest and question all political emigres and Jews returning to Germany.

1934 Holocaust: Goebbels demands that all Jews representing German companies abroad be dismissed from their positions.

1934 Death: Patrick O'Malley, US policeman, killed by John Dillinger.

1935 300 Dutch ice cream salesmen protest against Italian competition.

1935 Grigori Zinoviev and 18 other members of the "Moscow Centre" are tried in Leningrad for their part in the assassination of Sergei Kirov, secretary of the party committee.

1935 Birth: Robert Silverberg, prolific US author, historian.

1936 The nonprofit Ford Foundation is incorporated.

1936 Church and Reich: Vicar General Riemer of Passau issues instructions allowing sterilized Catholics to receive the sacraments of matrimony, reversing the decision of January 4, 1935.

1936 Japan withdraws from the London Naval Conference after being denied equality.

1936 The first, all glass, windowless building is completed in Toledo, Ohio as the home of the Owens-Illinois Glass Company Laboratory.

1937 The Schuschnigg government proclaims amnesty for Austrian Nazis.

1940 WW2: A German U-boat torpedoes a Dutch trade ship Arendskerk (Eagle's Church).

1940 WW2: The Belgian government refuses to let England and France move troops into Belgium before a possible German attack. This is a strange response as the captured German invasion plans called for an attack through Belgium.

1941 WW2: Hitler meets with Antonescu at Salzburg and informs him of his intention to invade Russia with Romanian collaboration. Antonescu tells Hitler that first he must liquidate the Legionary Movement, but neglects to ask for more than just a promise of additional aid, armaments, and war materials.

1942 WW2: The Inter-American conference opens in Rio de Janiero to draw up plans for protection of American republics against aggression.

1943 WW2: The American army agrees to CO-fund an anthrax-producing site at Grosse Ili, Quebec, Canada.

1943 WW2: The world's largest office building is completed, just outside of Washington, DC, in Arlington, Virginia. The massive structure covers 34 acres of land and has 17 miles of corridors, and serves as the headquarters of the United States defense effort. 1,000 workers completed the air conditioning system for the Pentagon.

1943 WW2: The Japanese are driven off Guadalcanal.

1944 WW2: The European Advisory Commission makes plans to divide postwar Germany.

1944 WW2: General Eisenhower arrives in England.

1944 WW2: The US Fifth Army successfully breaks the German Winter Line in Italy with the capture of Mount Trocchio.

1945 WW2: Every inhabitant of Amsterdam receives 3 kg of sugar beets.

1945 WW2: The Red Army liberates the Crakow-Plaszow concentration camp.

1945 WW2: The Red Army invades East Prussia.

1949 Chinese Communists occupy Tientsin after a 27-hour battle with Nationalist forces.

1950 4,000 people attend the National Emergency Civil Rights Conference in Washington DC.


1950 Death: Henry (Hap) Arnold, US Army Air Force general during World War II.

1951 A 'Cloud of Death' rolls down Mount Lamington, in New Guinea and kills between 3,000 and 5,000 people.

1953 The German Democratic Republic Minister of Foreign affairs Georg Dertingen, is arrested for espionage.

1953 President Harry S. Truman becomes the first US President to use radio and television to say farewell as he leaves office.

1955 The first solar-heated, radiation-cooled house is built by Raymond Bliss in Tucson, Arizona. He spends $4,000 on materials and labor to build the entire home.

1955 Death: Yves Tanguy, French/American sailor, surrealistic painter.

1955 The USSR officially ends the state of war with the German Federal Republic.

1962 The Dutch and Indonesian navies have an encounter in Etna Bay, New Guinea.

1965 Sir Winston Churchill suffers a severe stroke.

1967 The Nam: Some 462 Yale faculty members call for an end to the bombing in North Vietnam.

1968 Death: Leopold Infeld, Polish nuclear physicist; Motion & Relativity.

1969 The Soviet three-man Soyuz 5 spacecraft is launched on a mission to dock with Soyuz 4, which was launched the previous day.

1969 Death: Theodor Werner, German painter, at 82.

1970 In Nigeria, Biafran forces under General Effiong formerly surrender to General Yakabu Gowon. The Republic of Biafra disbands and joins Nigeria.

1970 Israeli archaeologists report uncovering the first evidence supporting the destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD by military forces of the ancient Roman Empire.

1971 The Aswan Dam is opened by President Sadat of Egypt and President Podgorny of the Soviet Union.

1973 Luna 21 lands on the Moon at 23:35:00 UT, Latitude 25.85 N, Longitude 30.45 E, in the LeMonnier Crater. Lunokhod 2, a lunar rover, is also landed and tested.

1973 Watergate: Four of the six remaining Watergate defendants plead guilty.

1973 Golda Meir becomes the first Israeli prime minister to be received by the pope.

1973 The Nam: US President Nixon orders the termination of all military attacks against North Vietnam after progress in the Paris peace talks.

1974 Watergate: An expert panel reports that there is an 18 and a 1/2 minute gap in a key Watergate tape; a gap caused by 5 separate erasures.

1975 Portugal signs an accord for Angola's independence.

1976 Sara Jane Moore is sentenced to life in prison for attempting to shoot President Ford.

1976 The US-German Helios B solar probe is launched into solar orbit.

1983 Death: Meyer Lansky, mobster, in Miami Beach, Florida at 81. Possibly the worlds most successful organized crime figurehead, Lansky never spent a day in jail.

1985 Civil rights activist Tancredo Neves becomes the first elected President of Brazil in 21 years.

1990 The Bulgarian parliament formally scraps the Communist Party's monopoly on power, clearing the way for multiparty democracy.

1991 Desert Shield: The UN deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait passes with no movement.

1992 The European Commission (EC) grants diplomatic recognition to Slovenia and Croatia, essentially recognizing the dismemberment of Yugoslavia.

1996 Death: Richard Charles Cobb, historian, at 78.

1997 Death: Kenneth Thimann, botanist, at 92.

1997 The Space Shuttle Atlantis docks with the Mir Space Station.

1998 NASA announces that John Glenn, at the age of 76, may fly in space again.










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