History: January 21

January 21
$

1189 Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assemble the troops for the Third Crusade.

$

1738 Birth: The bigger than life Ethan Allen: Organizer of the Green Mountain Boys.

1769 The mysterious Letters of Junius begin appearing in the London Public Advertiser. Commenting on and warning about public affairs and personalities, their author will never be definitely established.

$

1781 US Revolutionary War: The Department of Foreign Affairs of the Continental Government appoints the first consular officer. Thomas Barclay takes up his post as vice-consul in Paris at a salary of $1,000.

1785 Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa and Wyandot Indians sign the treaty of Fort McIntosh, ceding present-day Ohio to the United States.

1789 The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown, is published in Boston, Massachusetts; known as the first American novel.

1790 Joseph (Ignace) Guillotine proposes a new, more 'humane' method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as quickly and painlessly as possible.

$

1793 Death: Louis XVI, last King of France [1774-1792], is executed at the guillotine for treason.

1812 The Y-bridge in Zanesville, Ohio, is approved for construction.

$ 

1824 Birth: Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, American Civil War general.

1829 Birth: Oscar II, last king of Norway and Sweden. Unable to maintain the union of Norway and Sweden, he will surrender the former crown to Prince Carl of Denmark.

1846 The first issue of the London Daily News is published, with Charles Dickens listed as editor.

1853 The envelope folding machine is patented by Dr. Russell L. Hawes of Worcester, Massachusetts.

1861 The future president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis of MS, and four other Southerners resign from the US Senate.

1865 For the first time, an oil well is drilled, near Titusville, PA. This is the worlds first oil well, and is still producing token amounts to this day.

1867 Birth: Maxime Weygand, Belgian-born French army officer.

$

1896 Birth: Paula Hitler, Adolf's sister, in Hafeld, Austria.

1908 Smoking by women becomes illegal as the Sullivan Ordinance is enacted in New York City. Some women will continue to smoke even though it is against the law.

1915 The first Kiwanis club is formed in Detroit, Michigan. The name is taken from an old Indian term which, when translated, means “we make ourselves known.” Kiwanis International now has over 300,000 members in over 8,000 clubs covering 77 countries worldwide.

1919 Wilson submits Buckler's report of his meeting with Litvinov to the Big Five in Paris. Buckler wrote that "agreement with Russia can take place at once, obviating conquest and policing and reviving normal conditions as disinfectant against Bolshevism."

$

1924 Death: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, who styled himself as Lenin, at 54 of a brain hemorrhage. He had led the Bolsheviks to victory in the 1917 October Revolution and in its aftermath, had grappled with anarchy and war.

$

1924 Death: A triumvirate with Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev is formed after Lenin's death to exclude Trotsky from power. Stalin begins a plan to gradually ease Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, both of Jewish descent, out of power and gain complete control of the Soviet Union (USSR) for himself.

1927 Trotsky is stripped of all posts and expelled from the Communist Party.

1930 Jan 21-April 1 The London Naval Conference of 1930 extends the Washington agreement to cruisers and destroyers, and regulates submarine warfare. Britain, Japan, and the United States also accept a treaty limiting the size of battleships. Note: The Japanese will abrogate these treaties in 1934.

1934 The Austrian government approves establishment of a Jewish self defense force in Vienna.

1936 British King George V dies.

1938 Holocaust: Romania formally abrogates the minority rights of Jews, and revokes the citizenship of many Jews who have been resident there since the end of the war.

$

1939 WW2: Hitler dismisses Hjalmar Schacht as president of the Reichsbank and replaces him with Walter Funk. Schacht was left as an unpaid minister without portfolio until 1943. Note: A secret report to Hitler, prepared by Himmler, had accused Schacht of being disloyal to Nazi interests in his negotiations with George Rublee.

$

1939 Holocaust: Hitler tells Czech foreign minister Chvalkovsy, "We are going to destroy the Jews -- they are not going to get away with what they did on November 9, 1918. The day of reckoning has come."

1941 WW2: Antonescu stages a coup against his own government. A number of Legionaries are killed, but they continue to hold out in some places.

$

1941 WW2: The United States lifts the ban on arms to the Soviet Union.

$

1942 WW2: German forces under Erwin Rommel launch a counteroffensive in North Africa. Caught by surprise, the British are forced into a retreat across the desert.

1942 WW2: Secret Army intelligence report states there is an "espionage net containing Japanese aliens, first and second generation Japanese and other nationals "thoroughly organized and working underground." Gen. DeWitt, in a telephone call, tells Gen. Mark Clark that he expects "a violent outburst of coordinated and controlled sabotage" among the Japanese population.

1945 WW2: The Hungarian Provisional Government concludes an armistice with the USSR, the US and Britain. Hungary agrees to pay reparations and join the war against Germany.

$

1945 WW2: Gumbinnen, East Prussia, is taken by the Soviets.

1949 Chiang Kai-shek resigns as president of China’s Nationalist government after his armies are defeated by the Communists. Ten days later, Mao Zedong’s Communist forces will enter Beijing.

1950 Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury in denying that he passed secret documents to Communist agent Whittaker Chambers.

$

1950 Death: George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) author: Animal Farm, 1984.

1951 Atomic explosives are tested for the first time in Nevada.

$

1954 The gas turbine automobile is introduced in New York City, with a 370 horsepower, ‘whirlfire’ turbopower jet to power it.

1955 British archaeologists today admit to what they'd actually known for almost two years; the 'Piltdown Man' skull, which generations of schoolkids had been told was the missing link between man and his ape ancestors, is a complete fake. The skull was 'discovered' in 1912 during a dig in the village of Piltdown, near the Sussex town of Lewes.

$

1968 The battle of Khe Sanh begins, ending six months later.

$

1976 The British and French Concordes, with their droopy nose and sound-barrier smashing speed, make their maiden flights - from London to Bahrain and Paris to Rio De Janeiro respectively. These are the first scheduled passenger services by supersonic aircraft.

1976 Western newspapers, including the Financial Times and The New York Times go on sale in the Soviet Union for the first time.

1977 US President Jimmy Carter pardons almost all Vietnam War draft evaders.

1990 The East German Communist party expels former leader Egon Krenz and 13 other politburo members.

1991 Desert Storm: Iraq threatens to use shot-down allied airmen as human shields against bomb attacks.

1997 German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus sign a declaration cementing postwar reconciliation between Germany and the Czech Republic.

2001
$
2001
$
2002
$
2002
$
2002
$
2003
$
2003
$
2004
$
2004
$
2005
$
2005
$
2005
$
2005
$
2005
$


Visit: Visit:
Click Here to email the History: One Day At a Time webmaster.
Subscribe to History1Day
Powered by groups.yahoo.com