1645 English Civil War: The Battle Of Naseby takes place in Northamptonshire, with the Parliamentarians (Roundheads) under Oliver Cromwell and Sir Thomas Fairfax, victorious over the Royalists (Cavaliers), led by Prince Rupert of the Palatinate.
1775 American Revolution: The US army is established by a Congressional Resolution; the first US military service.
1777 American Revolution: The Continental Congress adopts a resolution stating that 'the flag of the United States be thirteen alternate stripes red and white' and that 'the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation.' Note: The flag will be modified 26 times in subsequent years.
1789 The first Whisky distilled from maize is produced in Bourbon County.
1789 The Bounty: English Admiral Captain Bligh and 18 others arrive on Timor in the East Indies. They have navigated 3,618 miles, in an open boat with no charts, after having been cast adrift from HMS Bounty by the mutinous Fletcher Christian.
1800 War of the Second Coalition: Napoleon defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo, in northern Italy.
1811 Birth: Harriet Beecher Stowe, author.
1834 Isaac Fischer Jr. of Springfield, Vermont patents sandpaper. Above: The 24-star flag, 1822-1836.
1834 A hardhat diving suit is patented by Leonard Norcross, of Dixfield, Maine.
1841 The first Canadian parliament opens in Kingston, Ontario.
1846 Bear Flag Revolt: California is declared an independent republic by a group of American rebels, after having taken over the headquarters of Mexican Governor Mariano Vallejo in Sonoma, California. California's independence will end only 25 days later when the US army will occupy the city of Monterey, and declare California as part of the US. Above: 28 stars, 1846-1847.
1864 Birth: Dr. Alois Alzheimer, in Germany, psychiatrist, pathologist.
1873 King Priam's treasure of 8,700 priceless pieces is discovered in Turkey by German/American Heinrich Schliemann. In disinterring it he destroys what is left of Troy.
1877 The first Flag Day observance is held on the 100th anniversary of the adoption of the Stars and Stripes. As instructed by Congress, the US flag (now with 38 stars) is flown from all public buildings across the country. In the years after the first Flag Day, several states will continue to observe the anniversary. See 1949.
1881 The player piano is patented by John McTammany Jr. of Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1898 A convention is signed between Britain and France, defining the borders between Nigeria and the Gold Coast.
1906 Birth: Margaret Bourke-White, photo-journalist. See Also: 1940.
1916 WW1: President Wilson leads a "preparedness" parade in Washington, DC.
1918 WW1: June 14-30 Dispatch Runner Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler endures trench warfare between the Oise and the Marne with 3 Company, 16 Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. (Maser)
1919 Captain John W. Alcock and navigator Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown depart in their Vickers Vimy from St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada. The 1,900 mile (3,040 km) successful flight will end the following day in a crash-landing at Clifden, Galway, Ireland; the first nonstop transatlantic flight. Neither of the pilots, who had entered the competition for the first direct transatlantic flight, set up by the London Daily Mail for a prize of ten thousand pounds ($50,000), are injured. The Vickers Vimy, designed as a bomber during WW1, is especially adapted for the flight. During the flight the crew suffer many hazardous conditions. There is bad fog and they have to fly through the night. They almost land in the sea, and are in the air for 16 hours 12 minutes. When Alcock and Brown return to Britain after their successful journey, they will receive a hero's welcome. John Alcock was born in 1892 at Seymour, Old Trafford. He first became interested in flying at the age of seventeen, when the science of aviation was still a new subject. During WW1 Alcock became an experienced pilot, though he was eventually shot down during a bombing raid, and taken prisoner in Turkey. After the war, Alcock wanted to continue his flying career and took up the challenge of attempting to be the first to fly directly across the Atlantic. Arthur Whitten Brown was born in Glasgow in 1886. He began his career in engineering before the outbreak of the First World War. Like Alcock, Brown also became a prisoner of war, after being shot down over Germany. Once released and back in Britain, Brown continued to develop his aerial navigation skills. While visiting the engineering firm of Vickers he was asked if he would be the navigator for the proposed transatlantic flight, partnering John Alcock, who had already been chosen as pilot. A memorial statue will be erected at Heathrow Airport in 1954 to celebrate their achievements.
1922 Birth: Kevin Roche, architect.
1922 Warren G. Harding becomes the first president heard on radio, as Baltimore station WEAR broadcasts his speech dedicating the Francis Scott Key memorial at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Maryland.
1925 Birth: Pierre Salinger, government official, journalist.
1928 Death: Emmeline Pankhurst, British suffragette.
1928 Birth: Ernesto 'Che' Guevara, Argentinean revolutionary.
1932 Weimar: The ban on the SA and SS lifted. (See April 14)
1934 June 14-15 Hitler and Mussolini meet for the first time.
1934 Marshal Josef Pilsudski refuses to meet with Goebbels during the Nazi propaganda chief's visit to Poland.
1937 Pennsylvania becomes the first state in the United States to observe Flag Day as a legal holiday; still the only state doing so.
1938 Holocaust: The German ministry of the interior requires registration of all Jewish-owned enterprises. Pressure is put on Jews to sell their business holdings to certain favored individuals or firms (I.G. Farben, the Flick Group, major banks etc.) at prices far below their actual market value. (Days)
1940 WW2: The French capital of Paris falls to the Germans. Grim Parisians note the Nazi swastika flying from the Eiffel Tower as Germans march up the Champs Elysee. About 2 million Parisians are thought to have left the city with roads to the south blocked by refugees. Signs go up in cinemas, restaurants and shops reserving them for Germans only.
1940 WW2: General von Bock, commander of Army Group B, flies into the "open city" of Paris and stands at the Arc de Triomphe just in time to take the salute of the first combat troops into the city. It is a parade, not a battle, and the German army quickly occupies Paris. (Toland)
1940 Church and Reich: The Vatican's semiofficial newspaper L'Osservatore Romano announces it will no longer publish military reports. From this time on it will adhere to a strictly neutral line. (Lewy)
1940 Holocaust: Auschwitz is set up as a punishment camp for Polish political prisoners. 300 Jewish forced laborers are brought in to prepare the old barracks. (Atlas)
1941 Gulag: Fourth of four mass deportations of Poles to Siberia. Taken are 300,000 of those who avoided previous deportations, and children from summer camps and orphanages.
1941 WW2: President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the freezing of all German and Italian assets in the United States.
1942 WW2: The first bazooka-rocket gun is produced, in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
1942 WW2: Shortly after the first 1000-bomber Allied raids on Cologne and Essen, Goebbels publishes an editorial in Das Reich declaring that Germany would repay England "blow for blow" for the attacks on German cities. He goes on to blame the "Jewish press" of London and New York for instigating Britain's "blood-thirsty malice" against Germany. These Jews, Goebbels says, "will pay for it (the bombings) with the extermination of their race in all Europe and perhaps even beyond." (Beast)
1943 The US Supreme Court rules that schoolchildren cannot be compelled to salute the US flag if it conflicts with their religious beliefs.
1944 Holocaust: All 1,800 Jews of the island of Corfu are deported for "resettlement" in Poland. (Atlas)
1945 WW2: Units of the US XXIV Corps capture Mount Yagu on Okinawa.
1946 Nuremberg War Crimes Trials: The slippery Franz von Papen testifies. "...At the end of 1913, at the command of His Imperial Majesty, I was appointed military attaché in Washington and Mexico. In this capacity, in the summer of 1914, I accompanied the USA Expeditionary Corps, which was dispatched to Vera Cruz as a result of the incident at Tampico. In Mexico, I was surprised by the outbreak of the first World War. Until the end of 1915 I remained at my post in Washington. This period is of decisive significance for my political life. Our strife, carried on with legal methods, against the unilateral supplying of our enemies with war materials, led to heated polemics and propaganda. This propaganda, which was fostered by the enemy, tried by all means to cast suspicion upon the military attaches of Germany, accusing them of illegal acts and especially of having organized acts of sabotage. At the end of 1915 I left the United States. I regret to say that I never tried to rectify and correct this false propaganda; but this propaganda followed me until the thirties and even until today, and has impressed its stamp upon me. In order to cite just one example, even after 1931, the Lehigh Valley Company stated before the Mixed Claims Commission that their claim of 50,000,000 against the German Reich was justified, since I, the German military attaché, had caused an explosion which had taken place in the year 1917, 2 years after I had left the United States. I am just mentioning this fact, Mr. President, since this propaganda honored me with titles such as "master spy," "chief plotter," and other pretty names..."
1949 Congress officially designates 14 June as Flag Day, a national day of observance. Note: The above, 48-star flag (1912-1959), was the longest-used version so far.
1949 Bao Dai is installed as president of the new state of Vietnam.
1951 The first commercial computer to receive wide attention, Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I), is unveiled and demonstrated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Designed for the US Bureau of the Census, the massive computer is 8 feet high, 7.5 feet wide, and 14.5 feet long. UNIVAC I was designed under the supervision of J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly.
1954 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an order adding the words 'under God' to the Pledge of Allegiance.
1961 Robert Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land is published.
1962 The European Space Research Organization, later replaced by the European Space Agency, is established.
1964 Francois Duvalier is declared President for life in Haiti.
1966 The Vatican announces the abolition of the Index of prohibited books.
1967 The space probe Mariner 5 is launched from Cape Kennedy on a flight that will take it past Venus.
1967 The USSR launches Kosmos 166 for observation of the Sun from Earth orbit.
1982 Falklands War: After suffering through six weeks of military defeats by Britain's armed forces, Argentina surrenders to Great Britain, ending the Falkland Islands War. The Falkland Islands, located about 300 miles off the southern tip of Argentina, had long been claimed by the British. In 1816, Argentina declared its independence from Spain, and in 1820 proclaimed its sovereignty over the Falklands. In 1981, the 1,800 Falkland Islanders - mostly sheep farmers - voted in a referendum to remain British, and it seemed unlikely that the Falklands would ever revert to Argentine rule. Meanwhile, in Argentina, the military junta led by Lieutenant General Leopoldo Galtieri was suffering criticism for its oppressive rule and economic management and planned the Falklands invasion as a means of promoting patriotic feeling and propping up its regime. In March 1982, Argentina occupied South Georgia Island, and a full-scale invasion of the Falklands began on 2 April. Argentine amphibious forces rapidly overcame the small garrison of British marines at the town of Stanley on East Falkland and the next day seized the dependent territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich group. British troops landed on East Falkland on 21 May. After several weeks of fighting, the large Argentine garrison at Stanley surrenders on this day, effectively ending the conflict. Britain lost five ships and 256 lives in the fight to regain the Falklands, and Argentina lost its only cruiser and 750 lives. Humiliated in the Falklands War, the Argentine military will be swept from power in 1983, and civilian rule restored. In Britain, Margaret Thatcher's popularity soars after the conflict, and her Conservative Party will win a landslide victory in the 1983 parliamentary elections.
1985 The 17-day hijack ordeal of TWA Flight 847 begins as two Lebanese Shiite Muslim extremists seize the jetliner shortly after takeoff from Athens, Greece.
1989 Former US president Ronald Reagan is made an honorary knight by Britain's Queen Elizabeth II.
1990 The US Supreme Court upholds police checkpoints that examine drivers for signs of intoxication.
1993 President Clinton nominates Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg, an advocate of women's rights, to serve on the US Supreme Court.
1993 President Suleyman Demirel asks Tansu Ciller to form a new government, giving the Muslim but secular Turkey its first female prime minister.
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