History: June 22

June 22

1377 At the age of 10, Richard II inherits the English throne.

1535 A month after the Pope had made him a cardinal, John Fisher is executed at Tower Hill in London for refusing to recognize King Henry VIII as supreme head of the English Church.

1611 Henry Hudson and son are set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutineers. "....In 1610 Hudson managed to get backing for yet another voyage under the English flag; this time the funding came from the Virginia Company and the British East India Company. At the helm of his new ship, the Discovery, he stayed to the north (some claim he deliberately went too far south with the Dutch), reaching Iceland on May 11, the southern end of Greenland on June 4, and then managing to turn around the southern tip of Greenland and continue west. Excitement was high that a ship had finally found the Northwest Passage, and on June 25th they reached Hudson Strait at the northern tip of Labrador. Following the southern coast of the strait, on August 2 the ship sailed into Hudson Bay and spent the next months continuing to map and explore the eastern shores. In November the ship became trapped in the ice in James Bay, and the crew moved ashore for the winter. When the ice cleared in the spring of 1611, Hudson wanted to continue exploring, but the crew wanted to return home. Eventually matters came to a head and the crew mutinied, setting Hudson, his son, and several other crew adrift in a small boat. They were never seen again, although some claim that he successfully made his way as far south as the Ottawa River."

1675 The Royal Greenwich Observatory is established in England by Charles II.

1679 The rebellion of Coventanters, a Scottish Presbyterian sect, is put down by the Duke of Monmouth at the battle of Bothwell Bridge near Glasgow.

1757 Birth: George Vancouver. "...an officer of the Royal Navy, and an explorer best known for his exploration of North America and the Pacific coast along Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. He was born in King's Lynn, England. George Vancouver's first voyage to the Pacific was aboard Captain James Cook's HMS Resolution on Cook's second voyage of exploration, from 1772-1775. It was Vancouver's first naval service. He was only fifteen years old. Vancouver served under Cook again, during his third voyage of discovery, this time aboard the Resolution's sister ship, HMS Discovery. This voyage lasted from 1776-1779. Upon his return to Britain in 1779 Vancouver was commissioned as a lieutenant. His first post as a lieutenant was serving aboard the sloop HMS Martin, on patrol duties in the English Channel. The next vessel Vancouver served in was the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame. The Fame was one of the vessels participating in the British victory in the Battle of the Saintes in 1782. While serving on the West Indies station Vancouver was able to put his surveying and cartographic skills he learned under Cook to use surveying Port Royal and Kingston Harbour. He was assisted in this task by Joseph Whidbey, who was to later serve as his sailing master, during his voyage of exploration..."

1772 Lord Mansfield, England's Chief Justice, declares that it is illegal to remove any person forcibly from England. His decision ends the famous Somersett case, in which James Somersett, a black slave bought in Virginia, attempted to escape after arriving in London. Note: Lord Mansfield's decision has often been mistakenly equated with the legal end of slavery in England.

1807 The crew of the British man-of-war, HMS Leopold, fires upon the US frigate USS Chesapeake, and then boards her. James Barron, the commander of the Chesapeake, will be convicted of not being prepared for action following a court-martial. This incident, along with a few others, will lead to the War of 1812. A little side fact: Stephen Decatur, a judge in the court-martial, will be killed in a duel some eight years after the war. The winner of the duel? James Barron.

1808 Zebulon Pike reaches his peak.

1812 Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon's armies invade Russia. "The invasion of the Russian Empire led by Napoleon in 1812 was a critical turning point in the Napoleonic wars. (The invasion route crossed, besides what is still in Russia, what are now parts of Lithuania and Belarus.) The campaign reduced the French and allied invasion forces to less than two percent of their initial strength. Its sustained role in Russian culture may be seen in Tolstoy's War and Peace and the Soviet identification between it and the invasion of 1941-1945. Napoleon called this warfare the Second Polish War. Until 1941 it was known in Russia as the Patriotic War; the Russian term Patriotic War of 1812 distinguishes it from the Great Patriotic War, the term the Soviets applied to their front in World War II. Also in Russian, it is occasionally referred to as the "War of 1812", offering some opportunity for confusion since in English that invariably refers to the war, overlapping it in time, between Britain and the United States. In June 1812, Napoleon's Grande Armée of 610,000 men, the largest army assembled up to that point in European history, crossed the river..."

1815 Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates for a second and last time after his defeat at the battle of Waterloo.

1832 J.I. Howe patents the pin machine, better known as a pinmaker.

1848 The antislavery Barnburners party nominates Martin Van Buren for President.

1856 Birth: H. Rider Haggard, author; King Solomon's Mine, She.

1865 The society known today as the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) is first organized. Its purpose is to provide information about the archaeology, the history and the people of the Holy Land.

1868 Arkansas is readmitted to the Union. It had first joined in 1836 but seceded in 1861.

1870 Scholars begin translation work on the English Revised Version of the Bible. Released in 1881, the ERV will become the textual basis for the American Standard Version (ASV), first published in the United States in 1901.

1870 The US Congress creates the Department of Justice.

1873 Prince Edward Island joins Canada.

1874 Dr Andrew Taylor Sill, of Macon, Missouri, starts his first practice, thereby founding the science of osteopathy.

1887 Birth: Sir Julian Huxley, in London, biologist, philosopher, Darwin's Bulldog.

1893 The British battleship HMS Victoria, flagship of the Mediterranean fleet, collides with the HMS Camperdown and sinks with the loss of 359 lives.

1896 Birth: Francis C. Denebrink, US Naval officer (WW1, WW2, Korea).

1897 Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee is celebrated. The St Paul's Cathedral service for the Queen's jubilee has to be held outside the building as the Queen proves to infirm to manage the steps. She had commenced her reign at the age of 18 in 1837.

1898 Birth: Erich Maria Remarque, novelist; All Quiet on the Western Front.

1903 Birth: John Dillinger, charismatic bank robber, will be one of America's Most Wanted.

1911 Britain's King George V is crowned at Westminster Abbey.

1915 WW1: Lemberg is occupied by Austrian-German forces.

1918 WW1: A circus train is rammed by a troop train at Ivanhoe, Illinois; 68 people are killed.

1919 Volkishness: Sebottendorff attends his last Thule Society meeting. Many members hold him negligently responsible for the loss of the Thule membership lists to the Communists who killed the Thule Society hostages in April. (Roots)

1922 Death: British Field Marshal Sir Henry H. Wilson, murdered in London.

1933 The German Social Democrat Party (SPD) is outlawed by the Nazis.

1933 Goering issues a decree instructing all government employees to spy on each other.

1936 Harry Froboess dives 110 metres from an airship into Bodensee and survives.

1936 Organic Act: The Virgin Islands receive a constitution from the US.

1938 Heavyweight boxing champion 'Brown Bomber' Joe Louis knocks out Germany's Max Schmeling in 2 minutes 4 seconds of the first round of their rematch at Yankee Stadium.

1939 Holocaust: Slovak Minister of Propaganda Aleksander Mach proclaims that with a year Slovakia with be cleansed of Jews (Judenrein).

1940 WW2: Adolf Hitler gains a stunning victory as France is forced to sign an armistice eight days after German forces overran Paris. General Charles Huntziger of France signs the terms of surrender with Germany at Compiegne, in the same railway carriage in which General Foch had received the German surrender in 1918. 

1941 WW2: Finland invades Karelia.

1941 WW2: June 22-28 In Brygidki Prison, Lwow, the Soviets carry out mass executions. Of 13,000 mostly Polish inmates, all but 600 are executed. About 3,000 are Ukrainians.

1941 Operation Barbarossa: Hitler's armies invade Russia. Germany, Romania and Finland are now at war with the Soviet Union. Over 3 million German soldiers and 3300 tanks cross the Russian border. The Wehrmarcht (German Army) is organized into three Army Groups. Facing them is the world's largest army composed of 230 divisions of 14,000 men each, with 20,000 tanks (many obsolete.) The Russian Army is organized into four Military Districts. Behind the lines, SS Einsatzgruppen systematically begin killing thousands of Jews in every city, town and village of western Russia, mopping-up all civilian resistance with remorseless cruelty. Italy and Hungary provide token forces for the invasion of Russia. Danish, Norwegian, Belgian, Dutch, French and Spanish volunteers will subsequently join in the fight against Communism. After the war, most will be sentenced to prison or executed by their own countries. The only exception is Spain, where former Nazis will be allowed safe haven. (Clark II)

1941 Diary of Leon Gladun: "At 12:15 p.m. Soviet radio announced that German armies had crossed the Soviet border at 4 in the morning without a declaration of war."

1941 WW2: Germany declares war on the Soviet Union many hours after the actual invasion.

1941 WW2: US Senator Harry Truman announces that, "...If we see that Germany is going to win, we will help Soviet Russia, but if it is the other way around, we will have to help Germany. Let's leave them alone so that they will weaken each other as much as possible..." (Marschalko)


1942 WW2: Polish leader Sikorski urges Churchill to take "drastic" measures against German citizens in Allied countries and to launch large scale bombing of civilian targets in Germany, in retaliation for Nazi atrocities.

1942 WW2: V-Mail, or Victory-Mail, is sent for the first time. V-Mail uses a special paper for letter writing, designed to reduce cargo space taken up by mail sent to and from members of the armed services. The letters written on this special paper are opened at the post office, censored and reduced in size by photography. One roll of film contains 1600 letters.

1944 WW2: The GI Bill of Rights is signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Destined to be one of the most important governmental measures effecting the post-WW2 era, the bill is designed to provide greater opportunities for returning war veterans. An important result of the bill will be the training of almost 8 million veterans.

1944 Diary of Leon Gladun: (Italy) "We press on. The road is beautiful: the Via Adriatica. Along the way there's signs of bombardment, blown-up bridges etc."

1945 WW2: The US 10th Army overcomes the last major pockets of Japanese resistance on Okinawa Island. "...The high cost of the victory was due to the fact that the battle had been fought against a capably led Japanese army of greater strength than anticipated, over difficult terrain heavily and expertly fortified, and thousands of miles from home. The campaign had lasted considerably longer than was expected. But Americans had demonstrated again on Okinawa that they could, ultimately, wrest from the Japanese whatever ground they wanted. The cost of the battle to the Japanese was even higher than to the Americans. Approximately 110,000 of the enemy lost their lives in the attempt to hold Okinawa, and 7,400 more were taken prisoners. The enemy lost 7,800 airplanes, 16 ships sunk, and 4 ships damaged. More important, the Japanese lost 640 square miles of territory within 350 miles of Kyushu. The military value of Okinawa exceeded all hope. It was sufficiently large to mount great numbers of troops; it provided numerous airfield sites close to the enemy's homeland; and it furnished fleet anchorage helping the Navy to keep in action at Japan's doors. As soon as the fighting ended, American forces on Okinawa set themselves to preparing for the battles on the main islands of Japan, their thoughts sober as they remembered the bitter bloodshed behind and also envisioned an even more desperate struggle to come. The sequel to Okinawa, however, was contrary to all expectation. In the midst of feverish preparations on the island in August 1945, with the day for the assault on Kyushu drawing near, there came the almost unbelievable and joyous news that the war was over. The battle of Okinawa was the last of World War II."

1946 Nuremberg War Crimes Trials: Longtime German diplomat Constantin von Neurath is questioned by his counsel "...DR. VON LUDINGHAUSEN: What did you know or what did you learn about concentration camps? When did you first hear of this institution at all, and when and from whom did you hear of the conditions which prevailed in these camps? VON NEURATH: The institution of the so-called concentration camps was known to me from the Boer War. The existence of such camps in Germany became known to me in 1934 or 1935 when two officials of my office, among them the Chief of Protocol mentioned by Herr Gisevius, were suddenly arrested. When I investigated their whereabouts, I discovered that they had been removed to a so-called concentration camp. I sent for Himmler and Heydrich and remonstrated with them, which resulted in a very heated argument. I complained at once to Hitler, and these two officials were released. I then asked them how they had been treated, and both of them agreed in saying that, apart from the lack of freedom, the treatment had not been bad. The concentration camp to which they had been taken was the camp at Oranienburg. Later on I learned of the existence of a camp at Dachau, and in 1939 I also heard of Buchenwald, because the Czech students who had been arrested by Himmler were taken there. The extent of the concentration camps as it has become known here, and in particular the treatment of the prisoners and the existence of the extermination camps, are things which I learned about for the first time here in Nuremberg..."

1954 The US Congress passes a revised organic act for the Virgin Islands.

1959 Vanguard SLV-6 is unsuccessfully launched toward Earth orbit.

1964 The United States Supreme Court rules against the banning of Henry Miller's controversial book, Tropic of Cancer.

1965 Japan and South Korea signs a treaty in Tokyo establishing diplomatic relations.

1970 President Nixon signs the 26th amendment and the US voting age is lowered to 18.

1978 Charon, Pluto's only known satellite, is discovered. Astronomer James Christy discovers it after reviewing photographs of Pluto. Christy proposes the name 'Charon' after his wife's name, Charlene, and after the Greek mythological figure of the same name who leads the souls of the dead across the rivers Styx and Acheron. Charon's discovery leads to a refined calculation of Pluto's mass.

1978 Neo-Nazis call off plans to march in the Jewish community of Skokie, Illinois.

1981 Iranian President Bani-Sadr is dismissed by Ayatollah Khomeini.

1989 Angola and the UNITA rebels agree to a formal truce in their civil war.

1990 African leader Nelson Mandela ensures the UN that a democratic, nonracial South Africa is within reach.

1990 The Peoples Republic of Florida passes a law prohibiting the wearing of the throng bathing suit.

1993 Death: Former first lady Pat Nixon. "...During World War II, she worked as a government economist while he served in the Navy. She campaigned at his side in 1946 when he entered politics, running successfully for U.S. Congress, and afterward. Within six years she saw him elected to the House, the Senate, and the Vice Presidency on the ticket with Dwight D. Eisenhower. Despite the demands of official life, the Nixons were devoted parents to their two daughters, Tricia, and Julie. Pat Nixon used her position as First Lady to encourage volunteer service. She invited hundreds of families to nondenominational Sunday services in the East Room. She instituted a series of performances by artists in varied American traditions--from opera to bluegrass. Mrs. Nixon took quiet pride in adding 600 paintings and antiques to the White House Collection.

She had shared her husband's journeys abroad in his Vice Presidential years, and she continued the practice during his Presidency. Her travels included the historic visit to the People's Republic of China and the summit meetings in the Soviet Union. Her first solo official trip was to take relief supplies to earthquake victims in Peru. Later she visited Africa and South America with the unique diplomatic standing of Personal Representative of the President. Mrs. Nixon was in failing health in retirement and suffered a stroke in 1976 and battled lung cancer. She died at her home in Park Ridge, New Jersey on June 22, 1993, the day after her 53rd wedding anniversary. Her husband followed her in death ten months later. She and the former President are buried at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. Her epitaph reads: "Even when people can't speak your language, they can tell if you have love in your heart."

1995 Police storm a hijacked jumbo jet in Hakodate, Japan, freeing all 364 people on board and capturing a lone hijacker.

1999 The US Supreme Court rules the Americans with Disabilities Act does not extend to people with poor eyesight or other correctable conditions.








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