History: June 23

June 23

1372 Henry of Castile, allied to France, destroys an English fleet at the battle of La Rochelle.

1501 Pedro Cabral returns to Portugal after a voyage during which he claimed Brazil for Portugal.

1683 Chief Tamanend of the Leni-Lenape tribe and English Quaker William Penn sign a friendship treaty at Shackamaxon, near what is now the Kensington district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The French philosopher Voltaire, an admirer of Penn, hails this as 'the only treaty between Indians and Christians that was never broken.' The Leni-Lenape lived along the shores of the Delaware River and its tributaries.

1757 Battle of Plassey: British forces under Robert Clive win control of Bengal and lay the foundations of the British Empire in India. "...Bengal's trade and wealth so impressed the Moghuls that they called the region the "Paradise of the Nations". Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire court (1575-1717) gave way to four decades of semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who respected the nominal sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. The Nawabs granted permission to the French East India Company to establish a trading post at Chandernagore in 1673, and the British East India Company at Calcutta in 1690. When the British East India Company began strengthening the defences at Fort William (Calcutta), the Nawab, Siraj Ud Daulah, at the encouragement of the French, attacked. Under the leadership of Robert Clive, British troops and their local allies captured Chandernagore in March 1757 and seriously defeated the Nawab on June 23 1757 at the Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab's soldiers betrayed him. The Nawab was assassinated in Murshidabad, and the British installed their own Nawab for Bengal and extended their direct control in the south..."

1760 The Battle of Landshut, takes place in Silesia.

1763 Birth: Marie Rose Josephine Tascher de la Pagerie, better known as Empress Josephine, first wife of Napoleon, on the French island of Martinique.

1784 The first US balloon flight takes place, performed by 13 year old Edward Warren.

1836 The US Congress approves the Deposit Act, which contains a provision for turning over surplus federal revenue to the states.

1845 The Congress of the Republic of Texas agrees to annexation by the United States.

1860 The US Congress establishes the Government Printing Office.

1860 The United States Secret Service is created by an act of Congress. At first, the agency will only be only responsible for protecting against the counterfeiting of US currency. In 1901, following the assassination of President William McKinley, the Secret Service will begin protecting the President of the US. Now, that has been extended, and the detail is in charge of protecting the President's family, the Vice-president, major presidential and vice-presidential candidates, past presidents, their wives and widows and children 16 and under. The Secret Service also guards visiting heads of foreign governments and (at the request of the President) other foreign dignitaries. Representatives of the US performing special missions on foreign soil are also protected by this arm of the US Treasury.

1865 The last Confederate holdouts formally surrender to General Stand Watie in the Oklahoma Territory at Fort Towson.

1868 Publisher and politician Christopher Latham Sholes receives a patent for a prototype of the type writer. The device becomes know as a 'blind-writer' as its design prevents easy viewing of the typed characters. Sholes's invention will eventually lead to the manufacturing of the first true type writer.

1875 Birth: Carl Milles, in Uppsala, Sweden, fountain sculptor.

1876 Birth: Irvin S. [Shrewsbury] Cobb, in Kentucky humorist, writer; Old Judge Priest.

1883 Birth: Ludwig Mueller, head of the German Faith Movement and Reich Bishop. When Hitler comes to power, Mueller will become plenipotentiary for all problems concerning the Evangelical Church, acting as the leading figure in the Association of German Christians. In late summer 1933, he begins actively organizing opposition to Pastor Martin Niemöller's (Niemoeller) Confessional Church, but due to Hitler's lack of support, Mueller's influence will gradually decline after 1935. He will commit suicide in Berlin in March 1946.

1888 Abolitionist Frederick Douglass receives one vote from the Kentucky delegation at the Republican convention in Chicago. In the end the nomination will go to Benjamin Harrison.

1894 Birth: Edward VIII, Edward Patrick David, Duke of Windsor, the King who will abdicate for love.

1894 Birth: Alfred Kinsey, entomologist, sexologist, pioneer sex researcher; Kinsey Report. Died in 1956.

1902 Birth: Dr. Howard T Engstrom Boston, a designer of the Univac computer.

1904 Birth: Dr. Carleton Coon, professor of anthropology; What in the World.

1911 Volkishness: Guido von List takes members of the HAO on a "pilgrimage" to the St. Stephen's catacombs in Vienna, where List claimed to have first sensed Wotan while still a child. They then continue on to other Wotanist "sanctuaries" on the Kahlenberg, the Leopoldsberg and at Klosterneuburg. (List; Roots)

1912 Birth: Alan Turing, mathematician, pioneer in computer theory; Turing Machine.

1913 Birth: William P. Rogers, former US Secretary of State (1969-73) under Nixon.

1915 WW1: Two Italian armies, each of approximately 100,000 troops, attack toward Gorizia during the First Battle of the Isonzo. They batter in vain against the heavily fortified Austrian defenses.

1916 Swiss police shut down Zurich's Cafe Voltaire, regarding its artist patrons as dangerous. Note: This Cafe is one frequented by neighboring resident Mr. Uljanov, better known as Lenin, the Russian revolutionary.

1919 Volkishness: Sebottendorff, now living in Constance, Switzerland, summons his sister, Dora Kunze, and his mistress, Kathe Bierbaumer. Soon afterward he converts the "Munchener Beobachter" into a limited liability company, the Franz Eher Verlag Nachf. Bierbaumer is given 110,000 of the 120,000 marks of capital stock issued and Kunze the remaining 10,000. (Roots)

1922 Weimar: Adolf Hitler once again is one of the main speakers at a meeting of Walter Riehl's Austrian Nazi party (DNSAP) in Vienna.

1926 Kellogg submits to fourteen nations a new draft of the treaty outlawing war as a national policy, with a preamble intended to meet French objections.

1930 In Wheeling, West Virginia, boxer Young Bruno is killed by a fall in the last few seconds of the last round in a boxing match. Bruno had won every round prior to his death, so the referee awards him a posthumous decision.

1931 Aviators Wiley Post and Harold Gatty take off from New York on the first round-the-world flight in a single-engine plane called the Winnie Mae.

1934 Italian warships occupy the Albanian port of Durazzo.

1935 Polish officials close the Anti-Nazi Boycott Committee of Poland claiming its funds are being mismanaged.

1935 Mussolini rejects British concessions concerning Abyssinia.

1938 The US Civil Aeronautics Authority is established.

1939 France turns over the Hatay, Sanjak of Alexandretta, to Turkey.

1940 WW2: Hitler makes a brief tour of occupied Paris. "The newspaper vendor in the Place de l'Opera couldn't believe his eyes. There, almost within reach, stood Adolf Hitler, conqueror of France. The German leader was posing for photographers in front of the famous Opera, behaving like any ordinary sightseer. The time was 6 am; the date June 23, 1940, just one day after the French capitulation. For Hitler, who had flown in from Belgium, the visit-his first and last-was a dream come true. His yearning to see Paris had begun when, as an art student, he had pored over pictures of the city's historic sites. Now, Paris lay under his victorious hand, all his own to savor as few men had been privileged to do. Oddly, Hitler, with his aides, an armed escort and two artist favorites, architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker, chose to pack his dream into three pell - mell hours, like a vacationing school teacher on a 10 - city package tour.

From the Opera, the motorcade went on to the Madeleine, one of the city's numerous memorials to the Napoleonic era, then drove around the Arc de Triomphe in an open car and stopped near the Eiffel Tower, where Hitler paused for a travel album snapshot with his artist companions. At Napoleon's Tomb, in the Invalides, the Fuhrer stared at the red porphyry sarcophagus of Europe's last great conqueror, and murmured, "This is the finest moment of my life."

1940 Those Vichy French: Pierre Laval is appointed Deputy Premier by Petain. General Weygand cashiers General de Gaulle.

1940 Gulag: Third of four mass deportations of Poles to Siberia by the Soviets. Taken are 240,000 of those who fled the Nazis, small merchants, doctors, teachers and journalists.

1941 Barbarossa: The Luftwaffe (German Air Force) destroys over 2,000 Red Air Force aircraft. Many are caught on the ground in the first hours of the assault. The numerically strongest air force in the world is wiped out in 48 hours. The Commander of Russian Aviation, General Rychagov, is given the death sentence for "treasonable activity" (i.e., defeat.) (Clark II)

1941 Holocaust: The first group of Polish and Polish-Jewish mental patients are deported to Auschwitz.


1942 Holocaust: By this time, almost all 15,000 Serbian Jews deported to the concentration camp at Zemun have been gassed in mobile gas units, disguised as Red Cross vans (see November 1941 and August 29, 1942). (Atlas

1944 Diary of Leon Gladun: (Italy) "Night quarters in Pescara. The city is in ruins--many houses are mined. The population is small as very few of the local inhabitants have returned to their homes after the Germans. Just 8 days ago the Germans were here."

1944 WW2: German author Thomas Mann becomes a US citizen.

1947 The Senate joins the House in overriding President Harry S. Truman's veto of the Taft-Hartley Act.

1951 Death: General Henri Philippe Petain (above, left) dies in a French prison.

1951 The most expensive US hailstorm occurs, causing $1.5M in crop damage and $14M in property damage in Kansas.

1951 British diplomats Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean defect to the USSR.

1956 General Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes Egypt's first president after an election in which he is the only candidate.

1959 Klaus Fuchs, a German communist spy and naturalized Briton, is released from prison in England after serving nine years of a 14-year sentence for passing atomic secrets to Russia.

1961 The Antarctica Treaty, which makes the Antarctic continent a demilitarized zone to be preserved for scientific research, goes into effect. The original treaty, signed by 12 nations two years earlier, will be revised in 1991 to include a ban on mineral and oil exploration for 50 years. The Australian Mawson Station is one of many research centers located in Antarctica.

1967 Pope Paul VI issues the encyclical Sacerdotalis Caelibatus, reaffirming the Catholic Church's requirement of celibacy with the priesthood.

1967 The US Senate censures Senator Thomas Dodd, D-Connecticut, for misusing campaign funds.

1967 President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin hold the first of two meetings in Glassboro, New Jersey.

1969 Warren Burger is sworn in as chief US justice by his predecessor, Earl Warren.

1970 Charles Rangel defeats Adam Clayton Powell in the Democratic primary.

1972 President Nixon signs an act barring sex discrimination in college sports.

1972 Watergate: President Richard Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discuss a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI's Watergate investigation. Revelation of the tape recording of this conversation will eventually spark Nixon's resignation in 1974.

1973 Dwight Eliott Stone becomes the last person drafted into the US armed forces prior to the expiration of the Selective Service Act.

1976 The CCN Tower in Toronto opens; the tallest freestanding structure at 555 metres.

1980 Death: Sanjay Gandhi, son of the Indian Prime Minister, and 'heir apparent' to the Indian Premiership, dies while performing aerobatic stunt flying.

1982 The fattest cat in the world weighs in at 45 pounds; Himmy, of Australia.

1982 In Argentina, the army assumes total control following the resignation from the ruling junta of the naval and air force commanders; their resignations follow the defeat by Britain over the Falkland Islands.

1983 The US Supreme court rules that the US Congress cannot veto presidential decisions.

1985 All 329 people aboard an Air-India Boeing 747 die when the plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean 120 miles off Ireland. Sikh terrorists are blamed.

1986 Tip O'Neill refuses to allow President Reagan address the House.

1989 The US Supreme Court refuses to shut down the dial-a-porn industry, ruling Congress had gone too far in passing a law banning all sexually oriented phone message services.

1991 G-7: The Group of Seven industrialized democracies agree to offer the Soviet Union associate membership in the International Monetary Fund.

1992 Mafia godfather John Gotti is sentenced to life in prison.

1993 UN oil and arms sanctions against Haiti take effect.

1994 Moshood Abiola, widely viewed as the likely winner of Nigeria's 1993 presidential elections before the poll was halted, is arrested and jailed by the country's military rulers.

1994 After decades as an international outcast, South Africa reclaims its seat in the UN General Assembly.

1994 A UN French intervention force (French marines and Foreign Legionnaires), cross into civil war-torn Rwanda to try to stem the country's ethnic slaughter.

1999 US Marines in Kosovo kill one person and wound two others after coming under fire. However, no Marines are injured in the incident.

2000 The Experience Music Project is unveiled in Seattle by Paul Allen, cofounder of Microsoft. The museum contains over 80,000 items of Hendrix memorabilia including a smashed guitar from the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival.

2001 Despite church opposition, Pope John Paul II begins a Ukrainian visit.









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