1294 All Jews are expelled from Berne, Switzerland.
1470 Birth: Charles VIII, king of France 1483-98, will invade Italy.
1629 The settlers of Salem, Massachusetts appoint Samuel Skelton as their pastor, by ballot. Their church covenant, afterward composed by Skelton, establishes Salem as the first non-separating congregational Puritan Church in New England.
1643 English Civil War: The Battle of Adwalton Moor (also called Atherton Moor) is fought, as the Royalists under the Earl of Newcastle defeat the Parliamentarians.
1690 War of the Grand Alliance: A combined British and Dutch fleet is defeated by the French at the Battle of Beachy Head.
1741 Pope Benedict XIV forbids the lucrative traffic in alms.
1768 Birth: Elizabeth Monroe (Kortright), US First Lady. "Monroe, Elizabeth Kortright (1768-1830), was the wife of James Monroe, who served as president of the United States from 1817 to 1825. Mrs. Monroe, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Kortright, was born in New York City on June 30, 1768. Her father was a well-to-do merchant. Elizabeth was raised in the formal atmosphere of New York City merchant-class society of her time. She learned social graces and was considered a beauty. Elizabeth Kortright met James Monroe in New York City in 1785. Monroe was in the city, then the nation's capital, as a Virginia delegate to the Congress of the Confederation. The couple married on Feb. 16, 1786. The married couple settled in Virginia in 1789. They lived in Paris from 1794 to 1796, when James Monroe was U.S. ambassador to France. The French admired Elizabeth Monroe because of her social grace and loveliness. They called her la belle Americaine (the beautiful American). The French Revolution had recently taken place, and the rebels were executing members of the upper class. One such person awaiting execution was Adrienne de Lafayette, the wife of Marquis de Lafayette, who had helped the United States during the Revolutionary War in America. Mrs. Monroe boldly went to the prison to speak to, and show support for, Adrienne de Lafayette. This action resulted in the release of the prisoner. The British burned the White House during the War of 1812. The structure had not been rebuilt by the time James Monroe became president in 1817. He and his family lived elsewhere in Washington, D.C. On Jan. 1, 1818, the president and Mrs. Monroe held a public reception to celebrate the reopening of the White House. President Monroe favored formality in White House social life, and Elizabeth followed his wishes. For this reason, and also because of poor health, she received only visitors to whom she had sent invitations. At first, many people said Mrs. Monroe was snobbish. But they soon learned she was doing what her husband preferred. The Monroes had three children—Eliza Kortright, Maria Hester, and a son whose name may have been James Spence. The two daughters lived to adulthood, but James Spence died as an infant. Elizabeth Monroe died on Sept. 23, 1830."
1794 The Battle of Fort Recovery, Ohio takes place. "...The Northwest Indian War (1785-1795), often known as Little Turtle's War in older reference works, was a war fought between the United States and a large confederation of Native Americans ("Indians") for control of the Old Northwest, which ended with a decisive U.S. victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. As a result of the war, territory including much of present-day Ohio was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Although often regarded as one of the seemingly self-contained Indian Wars that occurred throughout early American history, the Northwest Indian War was actually part of long frontier struggle in the Ohio Country that included the French and Indian War (1754-1763), Pontiac's Rebellion (1763-1764), Lord Dunmore's War (1774) and the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). Indeed, for many Native American communities, these wars were part and parcel of a single war that spanned several generations. For example, historian Francis Jennings suggested that the Northwest Indian War was, for the Delaware (Lenape) people, the end of a Forty Years' War that began soon after the Braddock Expedition in 1755. For some American Indians, the conflict would be resumed a generation later with Tecumseh's War (1811) and the War of 1812 (hence the term Sixty Years' War) and come to an end in the era of Indian Removal...The governor of the Northwest Territory, Arthur St. Clair, was given command of a second offensive in 1791. St Clair built a number of forts along the same general route as Harmar had taken, but at a battle at what is now Fort Recovery, Ohio, Confederates from the Shawnee, Delaware, and Huron nations among others ambushed the Americans and killed many hundreds of them. St Clair withdrew in defeat..."
1815 Second Barbary War: The conflict ends with an American victory. "The Second Barbary War (1815, also known as the Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, known collectively as the Barbary States. It brought to a conclusive end the American practice of paying tribute to the pirate states. After its victory in the First Barbary War (1801–1805), the attention of the United States had been diverted to its worsening relationship with France and the United Kingdom, culminating in the War of 1812. The unchastened Barbary pirate states took this opportunity to return to their practice of attacking American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea and holding the crew and officers for ransom. Unable to devote military resources and political will to the situation, the United States quietly recommenced paying ransom for return of prisoners. The expulsion of American vessels from the Mediterranean during the War of 1812 by the British navy further emboldened the brigandine nations. The Dey of Algiers expelled the US consul general Tobias Lear and declared war on the United States for failing to pay its required tribute. Since there were no American vessels in the region at this time, the challenge went unheeded. At the conclusion of the War of 1812, however, America could once again turn its sights on North Africa. On March 3, 1815 the US Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers, and a force of ten ships was dispatched under the command of Commodores Stephen Decatur, Jr. (above) and William Bainbridge — both heroes of the first war. Decatur and Bainbridge used the pirates' tactics against them. Taking hundreds of prisoners in an attack on Algiers, Decatur bargained for a treaty releasing the United States from any tribute obligations in perpetuity, as well as $10,000 in reparations for damages to the US. By June 30, 1815 the treaty was signed and the threat of Barbary pirates to American vessels was at an end. No sooner had Decatur set off for Tunis to enforce a similar agreement than the Dey repudiated the treaty. The next year, an Anglo-Dutch fleet, commanded by British admiral Viscount Exmouth, delivered a punishing, nine-hour bombardment of Algiers. The attack immobilized many of the dey's corsairs and obtained from him a second treaty that reaffirmed the conditions imposed by Decatur. In addition, the dey agreed to end the practice of enslaving Christians."
1819 Birth: William Almon Wheeler, (R), 19th vice president of the US 1877-81. "Wheeler was born in Malone, Franklin County, New York, and attended the University of Vermont. He was admitted to the bar in 1845 and practiced in Malone. He was district attorney for Franklin County from 1846 to 1849. He was a member of the state Assembly in 1850 and 1851 and a member of the state Senate from 1858 to 1860. He was elected as a Republican to the Thirty-seventh Congress (March 4, 1861 - March 3, 1863). He was a delegate to the state constitutional conventions in 1867 and 1868, and was elected to the Forty-first and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1869 - March 3, 1877). Wheeler was not a candidate for reelection, having been nominated in 1876 as the Republican candidate for Vice President. He was elected on the Republican ticket with Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876. He was inaugurated in March 1877 and served until March 1881. He retired from public life and active business pursuits because of ill health, and died in Malone. He was interred in Morningside Cemetery."
1834 Congress creates the Indian Territory, now known as Oklahoma.
1841 The Erie Railroad rolls out its first passenger train.
1859 French acrobat Charles Blondin (whose real name is Jean Francois Gravelet), becomes the first person to walk a tightrope across Niagara Falls (between New York State and the Canadian province of Ontario). Blondin's feat, performed in front of a crowd of 25,000 people, takes only 5 minutes. Several of the spectators faint as he stops halfway to set up and use a camera. On other occasions he will cross blindfolded, pushing a wheelbarrow, and even carrying a man on his back. Blondin is the most famous of all the daredevils who have crossed the Niagara Falls.
1862 US Civil War: Day 6 of the 7 Days Battle. Battle of Glendale (June 30, 1862) — A bloody battle in which three Confederate divisions converged on the retreating Union forces in the White Oak Swamp, near Frayser's Farm, another name for the battle. Due to a tired and lackluster performance by Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, Lee's army failed in its last attempt to cut off the Union army before it reached the James.
1884 Birth: Franz Halder, Colonel-General and Chief of the General Staff of the German army (OKH) from September 1, 1938 until fired by Hitler on September 24, 1942. He will be arrested by the Gestapo on July 21, 1944, and held in concentration camps until released by the Allies in 1945.
1892 Birth: Oswald Pohl, born in Duisburg, Pohl will join the Nazi party in 1923. From 1942 to 1945, he will serve as chief of the Central Office for Economy and Administration. At his disposal will be a work force of more than 500,000 concentration camp prisoners, some of whom will also be 'leased out' to industry. He will also ensure that personal and bodily effects of the gassed Jews will be reutilized by the German economy. Sentenced to death by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1947 and executed.
1893 The Excelsior diamond is discovered; blue-white and 995 carats.
1894 Korea declares its independence from China, and requests aid from the Japanese.
1894 London's Tower Bridge, one of the most well-known bridges in the world, is officially opened to traffic by the Prince of Wales. The raising bridge was designed by John Wolfe Barry, Sir Horace Jones and, after Jones's death, George Daniel Stevenson.
1900 Four German liners burn at Hobokon Docks, New Jersey, 326 perish.
1906 The Pure Food and Drug Act, and the Meat Inspection Act, become law in the US.
1908 Tunguska Event: One of the largest explosions in recent history takes place over the skies of Siberia, Russia. The seismic shock and firestorm are visible for hundreds of miles, leading to speculation that it is caused by an alien spacecraft. Most scientists believe, however, that the explosion is caused by a meteorite slamming against the atmosphere, and breaking apart before hitting the ground.
1909 Birth: Juan Bosch, poet, president of the Dominican Republic 1962-63.
1909 In Rome, the Catholic Pontifical Biblical Commission issues a decree interpreting the first 11 chapters of Genesis as history, not myth.
1911 Birth: Czeslaw Milosz, Polish/American writer, Nobel 1980.
1911 The US Assay Office in St Louis, Missouri closes.
1913 The Second Balkan War begins when Bulgaria attacks Serbian and Greek positions.
1914 Mahatma Gandhi is arrested for the first time after he campaigned for Indian rights in South Africa.
1921 President Harding appoints former President William Howard Taft Chief Justice of the United States.
1921 Documents are signed forming the Radio Corporation of America, better known as RCA. RCA will soon rival its main competitor, General Electric (GE).
1923 New Zealand claims the Ross Dependency in Antarctica.
1927 Henry Ford writes a letter to Louis Marshall, chairman of the American Jewish Committee, in which he repudiates The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as a forgery, claiming to have been duped by his assistants. Ford also promises to cease publishing negative articles about the Jews in the Detroit Independent and to withdraw his book, The International Jew, from circulation. Note: Antisemites spuriously claim that Ford's life had been threatened, and that Ford's apology only shows how powerful the Jews in America really are.
1927 The US Assay Office in Deadwood, South Dakota closes.
1931 Weimar: US President Hoover proposes that payments of all intergovernmental war debts and reparations be held up for one year. The purpose of this action, known as the Hoover Moratorium, was to provide a "breathing spell" for European countries. Germany takes this opportunity to ask for a complete adjustment of all war debts.
1933 Alfred Hugenberg, leader of the German Nationalists, resigns from the Cabinet while his aides begin liquidating the party.
1933 The US Assay Offices in Helena, Montana, Boise, Idaho and Salt Lake City, Utah close.
1934 The Night of the Long Knives: Ernst Roehm and most of the top SA leadership are arrested. Many are quickly executed without trial. Also killed are General von Schleicher and Gregor Strasser. As many as a thousand homosexuals may have been killed during the following purge. "...Alfred Rosenberg's diary provides an account: "With an SS escort detachment the Führer drove to Bad Wiessee and knocked softly on Röhm's door: “Message from Munich,” he said with disguised voice. “Well come in,” Röhm called to the supposed messenger, “the door is open.” Hitler tore open the door, fell on Röhm as he lay in bed, seized him by the throat and screamed, “You are under arrest, you swine.” Then he turned the traitor over to the SS. At first Röhm refused to get dressed. The SS then threw his clothes in the Chief of Staff's face until he bestirred himself to put them on. In the room next door, they found young men engaged in homosexual activity. “And these are the kind who want to be leaders in Germany,” the Führer said trembling." In the following hours other S.A. leaders were also arrested, and many were shot out of hand. Apparently Hitler intended to pardon Röhm, but eventually decided to have him executed. It is believed that Röhm was offered a chance of suicide but was eventually shot. Hitler also used this purge of the S.A. to settle old scores: Third-Positionist Gregor Strasser, former Bavarian Commissar and Triumvir Gustav von Kahr, former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and Conservative Revolutionary figure Edgar Jung, among others, were all murdered. Another former Chancellor, Franz von Papen, was put under house arrest...By the summer of 1933, the S.A. had grown discontented with the progress of the Nazi regime. Many had taken seriously the "socialism" of "National Socialism" (due to their years of unemployment), and were angry that Hitler and the other party leaders had not. As a result..."
1934 On Hitler's orders the SS becomes an independent organization within the NSDAP. (Edelheit)
1935 The Swiss state of Zurich prohibits the sale of Julius Streicher's Der Stuermer.
1936 A Jewish general strike is held to protest Polish anti-Semitism
1936 France outlaws the French Fascist Party.
1936 Margaret Mitchell's Civil War novel, Gone with the Wind, is published in New York City.
1936 Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia appears before the League of Nations to appeal for help following Italy's invasion of Ethiopia and his exile.
1937 The French legislature votes to give emergency powers to the Chautemps government.
1939 A fire destroys part of the Jewish district in Silal, Lithuania. Arson is suspected.
1939 The Heinkel HE176 rocket plane makes one of its first flight, at Peenemonde.
1940 WW2: German troops occupy the Channel Island of Guernsey.
1940 Birth: Patricia Schroeder, member of Congress, executive director of the American Booksellers Association, former Representative (D-Colorado).
1940 The Brenda Starr cartoon strip, by Dale Messick, debuts.
1940 The US Fish and Wildlife Service is established.
1942 The US Mint in New Orleans ceases operation.
1943 Kirovograd Conference: The Germans deliberately leak information about the Kirovograd Conference to the Allies. Stalin immediately breaks off the negotiations and calls Molotov back to Moscow. Neither the Russians nor the Germans will officially admit that this meeting ever took place. (Payne)
1943 General Stefan Rowecki, Commander of the AK, is arrested by Gestapo in Warsaw. He will refuse to collaborate and will be executed in 1944. He is replaced by General Bor-Komorowski.
1944 Holocaust: 1,153 Jews are deported from Paris to Auschwitz.
1948 Bell Labs announces the development of the transistor, a superior substitute for tubes.
1950 Birth: Donna Jean Willmott, Akron, Ohio, FALN member, FBI most wanted.
1953 The first Corvette rolls off the Chevrolet assembly line in Flint, Michigan. Price: $3,250.
1960 The Belgian Congo changes its name to Zaire and declares its independence from Belgium.
1962 Rwanda and Burundi become independent.
1964 The Centaur 3 launch vehicle fails to make Earth orbit.
1971 The three crew members of the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz XI die on reentry due to a drop in air pressure. They had just set a space endurance record of 570 hours, 22 minutes.
1971 The US Supreme Court rules that the "Pentagon Papers," documents on American involvement in the Vietnam War, can be published; the Nixon administration had tried to suppress them.
1971 The 26th Amendment to the Constitution, lowering the minimum voting age to 18, is ratified as Ohio becomes the 38th state to approve it.
1972 The first leap-second day happens. An extra second is added to time to make up for the fact that the earth is gradually slowing down. See 1985.
1973 The speed of the Concorde is put to good use on this day, when scientists are able to 'chase' a solar eclipse across the globe for 74 minutes from the Canary Islands to Chad. As fast at the Concorde is, an eclipse - at 25,000 mph - is even faster.
1974 Mrs. Alberta Martin Luther King, Sr., and a church deacon are slain by a crazed gunman in Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church, where her son, the assassinated civil rights leader, once preached.
1974 Mikhail Baryshnikov, Soviet-born ballet dancer, defects while on tour in Canada with the Bolshoi Ballet.
1977 Death: SEATO. The South East Asian Treaty Organization is formally dissolved after 23 years.
1981 China's Communist Party condemns the late Mao Tse-tung's policies.
1983 The high court in Melbourne rules against the building of the controversial Gordon-below-Franklin dam in Tasmania.
1985 The remaining 39 hostages from Flight 847 are freed in Beirut. They had been held for 17 days.
1985 For the 13th time since 1972, the world's official timekeeper atomic clock ticks off one extra second at 23:59 Greenwich Mean Time (also called UCT, Universal Coordinated Time) or 7:59:59 p.m. in New York. The leap second is added to compensate for the gradual slowing of the Earth's rotation.
1985 Death: James A. Dewar, the creator of the Twinkie. Mr. Dewar invented the treat in 1930. Many say that Twinkies will stay fresh almost forever. In fact, many bomb shelters in the 1960s were furnished with stockpiles of Hostess Twinkies just for that reason. Today, more than 45 billion of the soft, cream-filled, sponge cakes have been sold.
1986 The Georgia sodomy law is upheld by the US Supreme Court by a vote of 5-4. The US Supreme Court rules that states can outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults.
1989 NASA closes down its tracking stations in Santiago, Chile and in Guam.
1989 US Congressman Lukins is found guilty of having sex with a 16 year old girl.
1989 Sudanese military leader Omar Hassan al-Bashir topples the civilian administration of Sadeq al-Mahdi.
1989 Argentinean president Raul Alfonsin presents his letter of resignation. He had already announced his decision to go following poor election results in May.
1990 East and West Germany officially merge their economies, with the East adopting the Deutschemark as its currency.
1992 Fidel Ramos is inaugurated as the eighth Philippine president in the first peaceful transfer of power in a generation.
1993 The parliament of Azerbaijan elects rebel leader Suret Guseinov as prime minister.
1995 Russian President Boris Yeltsin fires three top security ministers for the botched handling of a bloody hostage-taking by Chechen rebels in southern Russia.
1996 Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic relinquishes all power to his deputy Biljana Plavsic, but keeps the title of head of state.
1998 Linda Tripp, whose tape-and-tell friendship with Monica Lewinsky spurred a White House crisis, spends six hours testifying before a grand jury in Washington.
1998 A casualty of the Vietnam War buried at the Tomb of the Unknown in Arlington, Virginia, is identified as Air Force Lieutenant Michael Blassie of St. Louis.
1999 Whitewater: On the day the independent counsel law expires, Kenneth Starr wraps up the Whitewater phase of his investigation as Clinton crony Webster Hubbell, a former associate US attorney general, pleads guilty to reduced charges in the Whitewater land deal scandal.
2000 The Clinton Administration declares that Iraq has restarted its missile program and has flight-tested a short-range ballistic missile.
2002 According to published reports, fugitive terrorist leader Osama bin Laden had written a letter to his operations chief in late December, meaning he survived the US assault on his cave complex in Afghanistan if the reports are authentic.
2002 Israel announces it has killed a top Hamas bomb-maker, responsible for the deaths of more than 100 Israelis in suicide attacks, and has begun work on an electronic fence designed to block off three sides of Jerusalem from the West Bank.
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